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Logic pro x manual pdf free

Logic pro x manual pdf free

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No other Logic book provides such an in-depth explanation my Logic books have a total of over 2, pages that is so easy to learn due to the visual approach. Order books:. The most in-depth explanations of all the new features and changes in Logic Pro With unique diagrams you won’t find anywhere else.

Preview it. There are also a few free books. Want to start with GarageBand first? Graphically Enhanced Manuals. Your books can be considered as a reference model for software manuals. I cannot praise you enough, you are great at this – Scot C.

I like your book style. Cuts to the workings and is spot on for a full explanation. You can get really simple ones that allow a couple of tracks to be recorded and played back, or complex multi input and output interfaces that allow entire band performances to be recorded into Logic for editing later.

We will create a new Template file…. Select your audio input device and sample rate from the drop down menus on the left. Similarly you want the main outputs of Logic linked to the speakers that you have connected to the outputs of your interface.

All of this is included and you should only have to do this here very often it will already be set up for you. In this case we want this track to be our record input so have assigned it to 1 on the Saffire.

In our case we simply have the mono input from a synth. Here they are shown as channels 1 and 2 out. Our main inputs and outputs for our project are now set and our interface assigned.


Logic pro x manual pdf free

Logic Pro User Guide. Use automation in the Audio Track Editor. Edit MIDI regions in the Piano Roll Editor. Overview. Add and edit notes. Apple Logic Pro X • User guide • Download PDF for free and without registration!


Logic pro x manual pdf free. Apple Logic Pro X User Manual – Download

Logic Pro User Guide. Use automation in the Audio Track Editor. Edit MIDI regions in the Piano Roll Editor. Overview. Add and edit notes. Apple Logic Pro X • User guide • Download PDF for free and without registration!


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See Logic Pro Quick Sampler overview. Drum Synth This powerful but easy-to-use plug-in creates synthesized drum sounds. Choose from a diverse collection of drum models and shape their sound with up to eight simple controls. Drum Synth is also directly integrated into the bottom of the Drum Machine Designer interface, giving you a focused set of sound-shaping controls. See Logic Pro Drum Synth overview.

Drum Machine Designer enhancements Drum Machine Designer is the ideal way to create, organize, and interact with electronic drum kits and drum kit pieces. You can use it for electronic Drummer tracks, as well as on instrument channel strips.

In the Drum Machine Designer window, you can view and edit Kit Controls for the overall kit, or Pad Controls for an individual kit piece. Use drag- and-drop workflows to quickly reorder pads, and add samples by dragging them to pads. Drum Machine Designer provides a flexible platform for groove production when combined with Step Sequencer. You can also use Smart Tempo when importing audio files with different tempos or tempo variations to have Logic Pro keep the project tempo and flex the audio regions to match it, or adapt the project tempo to use the tempos of the audio files.

Articulation Handling For software instruments that provide multiple articulations, Logic Pro provides new controls for creating, editing, and choosing articulations. You can view and change parameters for existing Articulation Sets, and create and save new Articulation Sets, using the Articulation Editor, then quickly change articulations while working in the Editors. Mixer enhancements The responsiveness and performance of the Mixer is improved, particularly for projects with high channel strip counts.

In addition, the Mixer provides several new capabilities, including creating a default channel strip configuration, disabling autoscrolling to the selected channel strip, and highlighting channel strips corresponding to a send or routing destination. In addition, selecting multiple channel strips also selects the tracks assigned to them.

Dynamic plug-in loading When you open a project, Logic Pro analyzes the project to determine which channels are needed for project playback. Only plug-ins needed to enable the full signal flow for playback including auxes, busses, and outputs are loaded. This allows projects to quickly be opened and be ready for playback and editing.

While you are working on the project, other plug-ins are loaded as needed. You can now find Austin and Tyrell in the Songwriter category. Each preset provides a range of articulations that let you create expressive, nuanced performances and recordings. Vintage Mellotron Vintage Mellotron recreates the features and a number of sounds from this famous keyboard instrument that has been featured on dozens of classic rock and pop songs from the s, s, and beyond.

See Logic Pro Vintage Mellotron overview. See Logic Pro Alchemy modulation overview. Also included are new loop length settings, new solo functions, and improved undo and drag and drop behavior. ARA enables Logic Pro and the Melodyne plug-in to share song structure information and analysis results. Adjust panning for sends independently Using the Independent Pan setting for a send, you can adjust the pan type and position for the send independently from the pan type and position for the channel strip.

See Adjust panning for sends independently. Automatic slurs can cover a selected group of notes, and adjust when the notes are copied, moved, or transposed. Using key commands, you can quickly add and edit automatic slurs for an entire line, part, or score. See Add dynamic marks, slurs, and crescendi to a score. See Manage Logic Pro content. Track alternatives Track alternatives allow you to create alternate edited versions of a track and switch between them at any time to audition or edit the different options.

See Use track alternatives in Logic Pro. Selection-based processing Selection-based processing allows effect plug-ins to be applied to audio regions and marquee selections directly in the Tracks area, either non-destructively or destructively. See Use selection-based processing in Logic Pro. See Set channel strip pan or balance positions in Logic Pro.

In GarageBand, the project appears as a new song with a single track containing a mixdown of the project. You can add tracks using GarageBand Touch Instruments, and then send the project back to Logic Pro to continue working. Touch Bar support If your computer has a Touch Bar, you can use the Touch Bar in the Tracks area, the Smart Controls pane, to apply key commands, and when playing software instruments. Drummer Loops Logic Pro includes Apple Loops associated with a drummer, which can be customized after being added to a project.

See Apple Loops in Logic Pro. Enhanced Quick Help Quick Help has been enhanced, and can now be viewed in a Coaching Tip-style window next to the pointer, as a movable floating window, or in the Inspector. See How to get help for Logic Pro. Alchemy features additive, spectral and granular synthesis and resynthesis, sampling, and virtual analog engines, and offers realtime performance controls and an extensive preset library.

For more information, see the Alchemy chapter in Logic Instruments. Instruments and effects Plug-in Manager: You can organize and manage plug-ins in the Plug-in Manager, create new plug-in categories, rename or remove existing plug-ins, and search for individual plug- ins by name. The transport controls are now at the top of the window for better visibility and access, the Library is relocated next to the track headers, and multiple tracks can now be selected and moved in one operation.

Menus are reorganized and streamlined, and there are a host of other ergonomic improvements. Groups of features can be turned on or off in the Logic Pro advanced tools and options pane, letting you optimize the interface to suit your way of working.

Quick Help: View brief descriptions of windows, controls, and other elements of the Logic Pro interface without leaving the app or interrupting your workflow. You can view Quick Help either in the inspector, or in a movable floating window. Projects New project structure: In Logic Pro X, project assets can be saved directly in the project or in a project folder, and can also be referenced from a location outside the project. For information about handling project assets, see Manage Logic Pro project assets.

You can also save project alternatives in different states, including different cuts or mixes, and go back to earlier, automatically saved versions of a project using backups. See Overview of sharing in Logic Pro. Auto Save: Logic Pro regularly saves your work in the background. In the event of an unplanned interruption, you can reopen your project with the latest changes and continue working.

Tracks area Drummer: Select from a variety of virtual drummers, each with its own drum kit and playing style, to add to your projects. Choose from a variety of both acoustic and electric drummers. Adjust performance parameters including loudness, complexity, and kit piece focus for each Drummer region. Drummer can respond interactively to other tracks and regions in a project.

See Overview of Drummer in Logic Pro. Smart Controls: Quickly adjust the sound of a track using a set of visual screen controls.

You can customize Smart Controls by mapping their screen controls to channel strip or plug-in parameters, then manipulate them using external MIDI hardware. See Logic Pro Smart Controls overview. Track Stacks: Easily organize complex arrangements by collapsing multiple tracks into one. Create layered instruments with multiple software instruments. Create submixes to manage complex Mixer setups.

See Logic Pro Track Stacks overview. Patches: Save and recall complex, multiple channel strip configurations along with their Smart Controls. Patches contain the instrument, effects, and routing settings that control the sound of a track. See Logic Pro patches overview.

See Add arrangement markers in Logic Pro. Groove tracks: Set one track in the project as the groove track, then select other tracks you want to follow the timing of the groove track. See Control timing with the groove track in Logic Pro. Editing Flex Pitch: Manipulate pitch and other parameters of vocal and monophonic instrument recordings. You can make quick pitch corrections in the Tracks area, or use the full Flex Pitch functionality to quantize and edit pitch and adjust other parameters in the Audio Track Editor.

Audio Track Editor: Edit audio regions non-destructively in a close-up view of a single track, including making Flex Time and Flex Pitch edits.

Mixing New Mixer options: The redesigned Mixer now includes gain reduction meters. The new multi-functional Effect slot design simplifies choosing, opening, and bypassing plug-ins. See Overview of mixing in Logic Pro for information about using the Mixer. Instruments and effects Drum Kit Designer plug-in: Customize or build drum kits to use with Drummer, or to play and sequence drum tracks manually.

You can choose multiple drums, then adjust individual parameters for each drum. Use other MIDI plug-ins to perform a variety of real-time operations. See Overview of plug-ins in Logic Pro.

For more information, see the relevant sections of the Logic Pro Instruments manual. Retro Synth: Retro Synth is a flexible, easy-to-use voice synthesizer that can produce a wide variety of sounds. This instrument plug-in provides four synthesizer types— Analog, FM, Sync, and Wavetable—each of which can generate unique sounds.

Bass Amp Designer: This effect plug-in emulates the sound of famous bass guitar amplifiers and the speaker cabinets used with them. This chapter introduces the main working areas of Logic Pro, and presents some basic tasks to help you start working in the app.

Logic Pro is a full-featured music and audio app you can use for every aspect of music creation: recording, arranging, mixing, and more—everything from sketching your initial ideas to producing polished final mixes. You can use Logic Pro for any type of project, from simply recording yourself singing or playing all the way to complex multi-track, multi- section compositions. For a quick tour of the Logic Pro interface, see Get started with the Logic Pro main window, then choose topics from the list on the left that introduce specific features and working areas, with basic tasks to help you get started.

The first time you open Logic Pro, it downloads basic content, including software instrument presets and Apple Loops, that you can use in your projects. After the download is complete, the Project Chooser opens so you can create a new project or open an existing one. To learn more about creating and opening projects, see Get started with Logic Pro projects. To hide the Dock, Control-click the area in the Dock between the last app icon and the Downloads icon, then choose Turn Hiding On from the shortcut menu.

You can access all of the major working areas of Logic Pro in the main window. The central part of the main window is the Tracks area. You record and arrange the musical material in your project on the tracks in the Tracks area. There are several different track types, including audio, software instrument, and Drummer tracks. When you make a recording, or add an Apple Loop or other media file, it appears as a rectangular region on the selected track.

Across the top of the main window is the control bar, which includes buttons that let you access different parts of Logic Pro, transport controls for controlling project playback, a Master Volume slider to adjust the overall project volume, and other controls.

In the center of the control bar is the LCD, where you can view the current playhead position, move the playhead, and set the project tempo, key, and time signature.

To start working with audio tracks, see Get started with Logic Pro audio tracks. To start working with software instrument tracks, see Get started with Logic Pro software instrument tracks. To start working with your recordings and other material in the Tracks area, see Get started arranging regions in Logic Pro. A patch contains the instrument, effects, and routing settings that control the sound of a track. When you choose a patch, those settings are applied to the currently selected track.

The Library shows available patches for the selected track. You can choose a category on the left to see available patches or subcategories on the right. In addition to patches, you can view and select plug-in presets and other settings in the Library, when the corresponding item is selected.

For information about choosing patches and other items in the Library, see Logic Pro patches overview. The available inspectors and parameters change, depending on which working area has focus, and what is selected. The channel strips for the selected track and its output appear in the lower part of the inspector, so you can view and quickly edit channel strip parameters and plug-ins.

The Quick Help area at the top of the inspector shows a brief description of whatever part of the Logic Pro interface you move the pointer over. Some Quick Help descriptions contain links to more detailed information. For information about editing region and track parameters, see Logic Pro Region inspector and Edit Logic Pro track parameters. When you open the Smart Controls pane, you see the screen controls for the the selected track.

Screen controls can control both channel strip and plug-in parameters, including software instruments and effects. Move the knobs and other screen controls, and hear how sound changes. For more information, see Logic Pro Smart Controls overview. The Mixer shows the channel strips for every track in your project, including auxiliary and output channel strips, and the master channel strip.

This makes it easy to see and adjust relative levels and other track settings. You can adjust the level and pan position of each channel strip, insert instrument and effect plug-ins and edit their parameters, mute and solo tracks, and send the output to auxiliary or output channel strips.

To start working in the Mixer, see Get started with mixing Logic Pro projects. For more information, see Overview of mixing in Logic Pro. The available editors depend on the type of track or region selected. In the Audio Track Editor, you can copy, paste, move, trim, split, and join audio regions.

You can also quantize and edit the timing and pitch of audio material using Flex Time and Flex Pitch. You can add and edit notes and other musical symbols. You browse or search for loops in the Loop Browser, where you can preview them to choose the ones you want to use.

For more information, see Apple Loops in Logic Pro. For more information about working with media files, see Using loops and other media in Logic Pro. When Show Advanced Tools is selected in the Advanced preferences pane, additional features, browsers, and editors are available. A project is the document that contains all of your recordings, the media files you add, and all the edits you make. You start working in Logic Pro by creating a project or opening an existing one.

You can create new projects and open existing projects. Logic Pro includes templates and demo projects that you can use to try out the tasks presented in the following Get Started topics. Logic Pro also includes several tutorial projects that you can use to learn about features of the app by following steps in a hands-on setting. In the Project Chooser, click Project Templates on the left, then double-click a template on the right.

You can also create your own templates and choose them in the Project Chooser. Open an existing project 1. Open a tutorial project 1. In the Project Chooser, click Tutorials on the left, then double-click a tutorial project on the right. In the Project Chooser, click Demo Projects on the left, then double-click a demo project on the right. For more information about working with projects, see Logic Pro projects overview. For information about creating projects, see Create Logic Pro projects.

Get started with project playback in Logic Pro You can play back the project at any time to hear your latest changes. You control playback and navigate the project using the playhead, the ruler, and the transport buttons, located in the control bar. The playhead extends from the top to the bottom of the Tracks area, and moves as the project plays, showing the currently playing point in the project. At the top of the playhead is a triangle that you can drag to move the playhead to a different time position, or scrub the project by moving the playhead across the Tracks area to quickly locate a particular musical passage.

At the top of the Tracks area, the ruler shows units of time in bars, beats, and beat divisions depending on the zoom level. The control bar contains a group of buttons called transport buttons that you can use to control playback, move the playhead, and start recording.

The transport buttons include the following:. The cycle area can be used for composing, practicing a part before recording, recording multiple takes, and other purposes. When you turn on the cycle area, it appears as a yellow strip in the upper part of the ruler. Start and stop playback In Logic Pro:. When the project is playing, the Go to Beginning button becomes a Stop button.

Double-click again to stop playback. Move the playhead In Logic Pro, do any of the following:. If the project is playing, playback continues from the clicked position. Each time you click Rewind, the playhead jumps back to the previous bar. Each time you click Forward, the playhead jumps forward to the next bar. In Logic Pro, click the Cycle button in the control bar or press C to activate the cycle area.

Hold the pointer over either the left or right edge of the cycle area, then drag to resize it. For iPad users, a separate app is available that you can use to navigate Logic Pro projects, and perform mixing, editing, and other functions, on your iPad. The Logic Remote app is available on the App Store. For more information about playback and navigation, see Play a Logic Pro project and Control playback in Logic Pro with the transport buttons.

For information about using the cycle area, see Use the cycle area in Logic Pro. Get started with Logic Pro project properties Each project has a set of properties, including tempo, key, and time signature.

The project tempo, key, and time signature are displayed in the LCD in the center of the control bar, along with the current playhead position.

Changing the tempo can affect the playback speed of audio and software instrument recordings, Drummer regions, and Apple Loops, in the project. Key The project key defines the central note called the tonic , and whether the project uses the major or minor scale. Time signature The project time signature defines how musical time is divided into measures and beats.

The first number controls the number of beats in each bar, and the second number controls the beat value the note that counts as one beat. Changing the time signature does not affect playback, but does affect the units displayed in the ruler and the bars in the Score Editor. For more information about working with project properties, see Logic Pro project properties overview.

When Show Advanced Tools is selected in the Advanced preferences pane, you can add tempo, key, and time signature changes in a project.

The recording appears as an audio region on the selected audio track, showing an audio waveform. You can arrange and edit audio regions in the Tracks area, and edit them in a close-up view in the Audio Track Editor. When you add a track, you can choose a patch for the track in the Library.

You can quickly audition patches to find the one you want to use, and change the effects for an audio track by choosing a different patch. Each audio patch contains one or more audio effects, and can include sends and other routing settings. Logic Pro includes a metronome, which plays a steady beat to help you play in time while recording. You can have the metronome play as you record, or only play a one-bar count-in before recording starts.

Add an audio track 1. In the Logic Pro toolbar, click the Add Tracks button. Click one of the two Audio icons at the top of the New Tracks dialog. If necessary, click the Details triangle to open the bottom of the dialog.

Choose the audio device and input channel or stereo pair from the Input pop-up menu on the left. In the Logic Pro Library, click a category on the left. You can audition audio patches by clicking them, then playing your instrument, singing, or making sound, to find the one you want to use. For more information about choosing patches, see Logic Pro patches overview. Prepare for audio recording Before you start recording audio in Logic Pro, do the following:.

Record on an audio track 1. In the Logic Pro track list, select the header of the audio track you want to record on. Click the Record button in the control bar or press R to start recording. After a one-bar count-in, recording starts. The recording appears as a new audio region on the track as you record. Click the Stop button in the control bar or press the Space bar to stop recording.

For more information about recording on an audio track, see Overview of recording in Logic Pro and Record sound from a microphone or instrument in Logic Pro. For information about connecting microphones and other audio devices, see Using audio devices with Logic Pro overview. Logic Pro features a complete library of professional-quality software instruments, including synthesizers and other keyboards, guitars, drums, world instruments, and more.

A patch contains the instrument, effects, and routing settings that control the sound of the track. You can change the sound of a software instrument track by choosing a different patch from the Library. In the Library, you can also audition patches to find the one you want to use. You record a software instrument on a software instrument track in the Tracks area.

The recording appears as a MIDI region on the selected software instrument track. You can have the metronome play as you record, or play only a one-bar count-in before recording starts.

If your music keyboard has other controls, such as faders, knobs, or drum pads, try using them as well. The new track appears in the Tracks area, and the Library opens on the left. You can audition software instrument patches by clicking them in the Library, then playing your music keyboard, to find the one you want to use. Record a software instrument 1.

Select the software instrument track you want to record to. The recording appears as a new software instrument region on the track as you record. For more information about recording software instruments, see Overview of recording in Logic Pro and Record software instruments in Logic Pro. Audio tracks also feature an Input Monitoring button. The track headers are located along the left side of the Tracks area, so you can easily see the mute, solo, and other settings for all tracks while working.

The Solo button turns yellow, and the Mute buttons of all unsoloed tracks flash blue. Click the button a second time to restore the track to its previous state. Option-click the slider to return it to a neutral level 0 dB gain. The dot on the wheel indicates the current position. The corresponding buttons on all the swiped tracks switch to the same state. For more information about working with tracks, see Logic Pro Tracks overview. For information about using the track controls, see Logic Pro track header overview.

You choose a patch in the Library, which applies those settings to the selected track. You can try out different sounds for the track by choosing a different patches, as long as the patch is compatible with the track type.

Patches can include one or more channel strip settings, and can also contain routing information auxes and metadata for Smart Controls and controller mapping. Patches for audio tracks can include default effects settings. Patches for software instrument tracks include an instrument plug-in as well as effects settings. The patches displayed in the Library depend on the track type.

For example, when an audio, software instrument, or Drummer track is selected, patches for that track type are available. Choose a patch for the selected track 1. In Logic Pro, click the Library button in the control bar or double-click the track header to open the Library. Choose a patch category from the list on the left, then choose a patch from the list on the right. You can quickly move through the patches in the list using the Up and Down Arrow keys. You can search for patches by name in the Library, edit patches by changing channel strip settings, adding plug-ins, or editing plug-in parameters, and save your own custom patches.

Get started arranging regions in Logic Pro The Tracks area is where you arrange the recordings, Apple Loops, and other musical material in your project, organizing them into sections such as intro, verse, and chorus to build an arrangement.

The Tracks area shows a visual representation of time moving from left to right. You build a project by arranging regions in rows called tracks, that run horizontally across the Tracks area. Regions appear as rounded rectangles in the Tracks area.

There are several different types of regions, depending on the track type. The two primary region types are audio regions, which show the audio waveform, and MIDI regions, which show note events as thin rectangles.

You can arrange regions in a variety of ways in the Tracks area, by moving, looping, resizing, splitting, joining, and deleting them. Try following the tasks below, using regions in the project. Move a region In Logic Pro, do any of the following:.

Resize a region 1. In the Logic Pro Tracks area, move the pointer over the lower-right edge of a region. Drag the edge of the region horizontally to shorten or lengthen it. In the Logic Pro Tracks area, place the pointer over the upper-right edge of the region. When you drag the edge of the region out by its full length, rounded corners indicate the beginning and end of each complete repetition of the region.

Split a region using the playhead 1. In the Logic Pro Tracks area, select the region you want to split. Only the selected region is split, even if an unselected region on another track is under the playhead as well.

If multiple regions are selected and are under the playhead, they are all split. Split a region using the Scissors tool 1. When selecting a cut point with the Scissors tool, you can move backward and forward in steps of one division. The grid is based on the Snap pop-up menu setting. For information about using Snap, see Snap items to the grid in Logic Pro. For more information about arranging a project, see Logic Pro Arranging overview.

For information about working in the tracks area, see Logic Pro Tracks area overview. A keyboard graphic along the left edge of the Piano Roll Editor provides an easy guide to the pitches of notes. On the left are controls for quantizing the timing and pitch of MIDI notes, and editing their velocity. The header shows the name of the selected region, or the number of regions if more than one is selected , as well as the pitch and position of the pointer in the region.

Note: You can change the note length as you add a note, by holding down the mouse button and dragging left or right. While you drag, a help tag shows the precise end point and length of the note. Tip: It might sometimes be difficult to grab the corner of very short notes. You can use the Finger tool, which allows you to grab notes anywhere to alter their length, or zoom in for a closer view.

The color of the note event changes and the horizontal line inside the event either lengthens or shortens. Get started with the Logic Pro Audio Track Editor The Audio Track Editor shows a close-up view of part of an audio track in the Tracks area, displaying the audio waveforms of the regions on the track.

In the Audio Track Editor, you can move, trim, split, and join audio regions, play a region in isolation, and edit regions in other ways. Edits you make in the Audio Track Editor are non- destructive, so you can always return to your original recordings.

You can also quantize and edit the pitch of audio material in the Audio Track Editor using Flex Pitch. When you choose a Flex Pitch algorithm, the contents of the audio track are analyzed for pitch, and the results are displayed as a pitch curve overlaid on the waveform.

Along the top of the Audio Track Editor is a ruler showing time divisions, based on the time format chosen in the LCD, and a menu bar with local menus. The main area of the Audio Track Editor shows the audio waveform of the regions in the selected audio track. Trim an audio region 1. In the Logic Pro Audio Track Editor, place the pointer over the lower-left or lower-right edge of the region.

Drag the pointer to trim the beginning or end of the region. You can scrub regions to find the point where you want to cut by dragging across the regions with the Scissors tool. Before moving or deleting a segment of a split audio region, click to select it. Join regions 1. Select the split regions. Turn on flex in the Audio Track Editor 1.

Open the Audio Track Editor by doing one of the following:. Change the pitch of a note 1. When Show Advanced Tools is selected in the Advanced preferences pane, you can also edit the timing of individual notes, chords, or sounds in the Audio Track Editor using Flex Time. You can also open the Audio File Editor to make permanent destructive edits to the source audio file for a region. You can choose from different genres, and choose different drummers in each genre.

Each drummer has a specific drum kit and playing style. You can choose a drummer preset, edit drum settings to adjust the playing style, exchange drum kits, and choose individual drum sounds. To work with Drummer, you add a Drummer track to the project. A Drummer track is similar to a software instrument track, but it contains only Drummer regions, rather than MIDI regions. Both track and region parameters can be edited in the Drummer Editor.

In the Logic Pro toolbar, lick the Add Tracks button. Click the Drummer icon the drum kit at the top of the New Tracks dialog. A Drummer track is added, along with one 8-bar region. The Library opens, and a default patch is loaded to the track. Choose a genre and drummer 1. In the Logic Pro Library, click a genre. The available drummers for the selected genre appear to the right of the genres. A preset consists of a number of region settings, visible to the right of the presets area.

The farther right you place the puck, the more complex the sound becomes; the higher you place the puck, the louder the sound plays. Choose a pattern variation for a drum or percussion instrument In the Logic Pro Drummer Editor, do any of the following:.

Exchange a drum 1. The Exchange panel opens to the left if exchange pieces are available for that kit piece. Click the Info button of a selected kit piece to view its description. Click the kit piece that you want to exchange in the Exchange panel. You may need to scroll in order to find the one you want to use. The piece is exchanged and the respective drum sound is loaded.

Click anywhere in the plug-in window background to close the panels. You can click the lock to prevent any changes to the fills setting when switching presets or drummers. Note: The presence of ghost notes depends on the chosen drummer and the complexity setting. Note: This is relevant only if the Hi-Hat is selected in the drum kit representation. Any changes or selections you make in the Drummer Editor affect only the selected region, not the entire track. Each Smart Control includes a set of screen controls that you can adjust to control the sound of the patch.

Smart Controls typically include EQ or tone controls, reverb and other effects controls, and controls specific to the type of track or instrument. For example, the Smart Control for a synthesizer might include screen controls for choosing the waveform and adjusting the resonance and filter cutoff, while one for a string instrument might include controls for changing the articulation.

When you open the Smart Controls pane, you see the screen controls for the selected track. Each screen control is labeled to make its function easy to understand. Each screen control has a text label indicating what aspect of the sound it controls. You can also change the layout for a Smart Control, save your own Smart Controls, map screen controls to channel strip and plug-in parameters, and assign controllers on your MIDI devices to screen controls.

With Live Loops, you can play, arrange, and record new musical ideas in real time. Each musical phrase or loop exists in a cell in the Live Loops grid. You can start and stop playback of cells freely, while keeping everything in sync with the beat and the project tempo.

You can start using Live Loops with an empty grid, or choose a Live Loops template with a set of instruments and prerecorded cells from the Project Chooser.

You can also add regions or loops from the Tracks area to the grid, and record a Live Loops performance to the Tracks area. Create an empty Live Loops project 1. Choose a Live Loops template 1. For more information about working with Live Loops, see the Live Loops overview. In the Mixer, each track has a channel strip that corresponds to its track type. You can also add effect plug-ins, change plug-in settings, and control the signal flow using sends and auxiliary aux channel strips.

You can try out the following tasks using either the inspector channel strips or the channel strips in the Mixer. When you solo a channel strip, the Mute buttons of all unsoloed channel strips flash. Choose a different plug-in In the Logic Pro Mixer, do one of the following:. For more information about channel strip controls, see Channel strip controls in Logic Pro. Get started with Apple Loops in Logic Pro Apple Loops are prerecorded musical patterns that you can use to quickly add drum beats, rhythm parts, and other musical phrases to a project.

Apple Loops contain musical patterns that can be repeated over and over, seamlessly. After you add a loop to the Tracks area, you can extend it to fill any amount of time. When you add an Apple Loop to a project, it automatically matches the project tempo and key. Apple Loops are available in a variety of instruments, genres, and moods in the Loop Browser. You can also convert Drummer loops to software instrument loops by adding them to software instrument tracks, or convert them to audio loops by adding them to audio tracks.

Keywords with no matching loops are dimmed. You can adjust the preview volume, and choose a different key for the loop. After you add the loop to the Tracks area, you can drag it left or right to adjust the point where it starts playing.

You can also search for loops by name, key, or time signature. Get started with Smart Tempo With Smart Tempo you can record a performance without the metronome and have Logic Pro adapt the project tempo to match the tempo of the recording, or keep the project tempo and flex the recording to match it.

You can create remixes using audio files and MIDI regions with different tempos that all conform to the project tempo, or adapt the project tempo to the tempo of an imported audio file or MIDI region. You can also use Smart Tempo with multitrack audio recordings. You can set the default Project Tempo mode for a project in the Smart Tempo project settings. In the Logic Pro Tracks area, select the audio region. It also follows any changes to the project tempo.

You can view and edit Smart Tempo analysis results in the Smart Tempo Editor, including beat markers and other tempo information. After you record an audio or MIDI region or import a file using Smart Tempo, you can refine the tempo analysis and correct any tempo detection errors to define the musical intent more accurately. When Adapt is the Project Tempo mode, tempo and time signature changes are transferred to the project tempo and time signature tracks. You can make quick tempo, beat, and timing adjustments, or make more complex edits to the tempo information for a single beat, a selection, or the entire file or region.

If you have a SoundCloud account, you can share a project to SoundCloud, choose the quality and visibility level, and set permissions for the shared project from within Logic Pro. Share the project to your iTunes library 1. To rename the shared file, select the name in the Title field, then enter a new name. Type artist, composer, and album information for the shared file in the respective text fields.

Choose the quality level for the shared file from the Quality pop-up menu. When you share a project to iTunes, the entire project, from the beginning to the end of the last region, is exported. Any silence at the beginning or end of the project is trimmed. If Cycle mode is on when you share the project, the part of the project between the start and end of the cycle region is exported.

The shared project appears in the iTunes library, where you can add it to playlists, convert it, or burn it to a CD. The format of the shared project is determined by the iTunes import settings. To rename the shared file, select the name in the File name field, then enter a new name. Choose the quality setting for the shared file from the Quality pop-up menu. The entire project, from the beginning to the end of the last region, is exported.

Share a project to SoundCloud 1. Projects must have a title in the Title field. The remaining information is optional. To return to Logic Pro without sharing the project, click Close. For details about sharing your projects, see Overview of sharing in Logic Pro. Logic Pro is a powerful, full-featured music app with all the tools you need to create professional-quality music productions.

You can record, arrange, and edit audio and MIDI regions, add high-quality effects, mix your music in stereo or surround, and export the final mix in a variety of formats for distribution. Using Logic Pro you can create many different kinds of projects, from simple songs to complex ensemble arrangements.

Logic Pro gives you the flexibility to customize the app to suit your way of working. You can also play and record third-party Audio Units software instruments. You can also define sections of the project and quickly rearrange them using arrangement markers. You can record automation changes in real time and edit them later. Use markers to define and quickly move to different sections of a project. Logic Pro workflow overview To give you an idea of the possibilities, some major steps in putting together a Logic Pro project are described below.

You could, for example, go all the way through mixing and adding effects, then add more recordings or media files to your project before finalizing the mix and sharing the finished project. Create a project You start working in Logic Pro by creating a new project to hold your musical material and all the changes you make. You can add tracks for your recordings and for media files you want to add to the project.

Media files and other assets can be saved in the project, or referenced in their current location. Record your material Add musical material by recording your performances in the Tracks area.

You can record vocals, instruments, and other sounds on audio tracks. Using a USB keyboard or other MIDI controller, you can play and record a wide variety of software instruments on software instrument tracks. Apple Loops are prerecorded audio and MIDI files optimized to create repeating patterns that can be extended to fill any amount of time.

You can also add audio files, movies, and other prerecorded media files to a project. Recordings, loops, and other media files appear in the Tracks area as regions that you can can copy, move, resize, loop, and edit in other ways.

You can also use arrangement markers to define and easily rearrange entire sections of a project. For audio regions, you can also precisely edit the timing of individual notes and other events using Flex Time, and adjust the pitch of notes using Flex Pitch. You can also edit Drummer regions in the Drummer Editor. Mix and add effects As your project takes shape, you mix it to balance the individual parts and blend them into a cohesive whole.

In the Mixer, you can adjust volume levels and pan balance positions of tracks, and use routing and grouping to control the signal flow. Logic Pro features a set of professional-quality effects plug-ins that you can use to enhance particular song components and create a polished final mix.

You can control changes to mix, effects, and other parameters over time using automation. Make global changes You can manipulate different aspects of an overall project using global tracks, including the Arrangement track, Marker track, Signature track, Tempo track, and Transposition track.

For movie projects, you can also access the Movie track to view video frames and synchronize them with musical events. Share your project When your project is ready to share, you can export a stereo file of your final mix in one of several standard audio file formats. You can also produce multiple stem files, formatted for most common surround encoding schemes.

The main window is organized into different areas to help you focus on different aspects of your project, such as recording, arranging, and mixing. Buttons in the control bar show or hide different areas of the app. You can customize the control bar to suit your way of working. You can show and hide the toolbar to optimize available screen space.

The available parameters change depending on the area in which you are working, and what type of item is selected.

You can view and edit channel strip controls, customize routing options, and add and edit plug-ins in the Mixer. You can show or hide different areas as part of the main window. Some can also be opened as separate, movable windows. You can also open multiple instances of the main window, and configure each one differently. The main elements of the Tracks area include:. The ruler lets you align items in the Tracks area and mark project sections, and has additional uses for various playback and recording tasks.

The workspace is the primary area for recording and arranging audio and MIDI regions. You can use the playhead to help align regions and other items, and for editing tasks, such as splitting regions. For information about working in the Tracks area, see Logic Pro Tracks area overview.

Categories appear on the left, and patches for the selected category are displayed on the right. You can search for patches, create, save, and delete patches, and choose routing options. When a Drummer track is selected, you can choose drum genres and drummers in the Library, which apply to all regions in the Drummer track. You can choose preset settings for the selected drummer from the left side of the Drummer Editor. Open the Library Do one of the following:.

For information about using the Library, see Logic Pro patches overview. Logic Pro Inspector interface You can view and edit parameters for regions, tracks, and other items in the various inspectors.

The parameters displayed depend on the type of item selected, and which working area has key focus. If you change region parameters while the project is playing, you hear the changes immediately. All regions on the track are affected by the track parameters. The right channel strip shows the output for the left channel strip by default, but can also show an aux used by the left channel strip if one exists.

You can adjust the level, pan, sends, and inserts, change effects, and control audio routing for these channel strips without opening the Mixer. Inspectors for other working areas, such as the Event inspector, Display Parameters inspector, and Score inspector are described in their respective chapters. Open the inspector Do one of the following:.

Logic Pro Mixer interface The Mixer shows the channel strips for every track in your project, including auxiliary and output channel strips, and the master channel strip. This makes it easy to see and adjust relative levels and pan balance positions. You can also add effects, mute and solo tracks, use busses and sends to control the signal flow, and use groups to control multiple channel strips.

Open the Mixer Do one of the following:. For more information about the Mixer, see Overview of mixing in Logic Pro. For information about using channel strip controls, see Channel strip controls in Logic Pro. Logic Pro Smart Controls interface Smart Controls let you quickly view and adjust the most important parameters of the selected track, without opening the Mixer or individual plug-in windows.

Each Smart Control features a set of screen controls. Adjusting a single screen control can modify one or more channel strip or plug-in parameters for the track. Each Smart Control has a set of screen controls optimized for the type of track or instrument. Screen controls are labeled to make their functions easier to understand. Open the Smart Controls pane Do one of the following:.

Using the Audio Track Editor grid, you can precisely align edits with specific points in time. When Flex Pitch is turned on, you can quantize the timing and pitch of audio regions, and adjust their pitch and gain in the Audio Track Editor inspector.

All edits in the Audio Track Editor are non-destructive, so you can always return to your original recordings. Open the Audio Track Editor Do one of the following:. The position of each note on the grid shows the time position where it starts playing, its duration length , and pitch.

Note velocity is indicated by color. You can edit individual notes by moving them, resizing them, dragging them vertically to change their pitch, and in a variety of other ways. Open the Piano Roll Editor Do one of the following:. The Drummer Editor shows settings for the selected Drummer region, including presets, an XY pad for adjusting the complexity and loudness of the region performance, and controls for editing performance parameters, including kit piece pattern variations and fill settings.

You can view and select a genre to view drummers for that genre, and then select a drummer, in the Library when a Drummer track is selected. A preset consists of all region settings, visible to the right of the presets area. You can use the default settings, or you can edit them and save your own presets. You also have the option to play half time or double time for kick and snare.

Adjust the shuffle feel of the region performance using the Swing knob. Click the Details button to reveal additional performance controls. Open the Drummer Editor Do one of the following:. The Drummer Editor opens below the Tracks area.

Lyrics, titles, and other text can also be included in the score. You can control the display of individual staffs, extract parts from the score, modify the overall score layout, and print or export complete scores, partial scores, and parts. Select musical symbols to add to the score, and customize the order of symbols in the Part box. For more information about using the Score Editor, see Logic Pro music notation overview.

You can easily add or edit note velocities or other controller data making some editing tasks, such as data scaling, much faster , or quickly create and edit MIDI drum parts. When you select a row in the name column, its event definition is shown in the Lane inspector. Controller values, note velocity, and other values are indicated by the height of each beam taller beams indicate higher values.

It displays the audio waveform of regions on an audio track. In the Audio File Editor, you can destructively edit audio files and regions , and use audio processing tools to quantize audio, change sample rates, and extract MIDI grooves from audio files. Open the Audio File Editor Do one of the following:. Logic Pro project notes interface You can create, view, and edit notes for a project in the Project Notes pane.

Each project can contain one set of project notes. You can also double-click the Project Text area. Open the Project Notes pane Do one of the following:.

Logic Pro track notes interface You can create, view, and edit notes for each track in the Track Notes pane. You can also double-click the Track Text area. Open the Track Notes pane Do one of the following:. For more information about track notes, see Add track notes in Logic Pro. You can use it to make precise edits, and for other tasks better suited to numeric rather than graphic edits.

You can display all events or limit them by category. This view lets you see all regions in the current project. For more information, see Logic Pro Event List editor overview. You can create, select, and edit markers in the Marker List, and click a marker name to move the playhead to that marker position.

Use this area to enter or edit text for the selected marker. Open the Marker List Do one of the following:. Logic Pro Tempo List interface The Tempo List displays all the tempo events in the project, and lets you create and edit tempo events. Logic Pro Signature List interface The Signature List shows all the time and key signature changes in your project, as well as any score symbols in the project score.

You can create, copy, move, and delete time and key signature events in the Signature List. You can browse for loops or search using various criteria, preview matching loops, and add them to your project by dragging them into the Tracks area.

Matching loops appear in the results list below. Click a loop to preview it, and drag a loop from the results list into the Tracks area to add it to your project. In that case, the left edge of the region stays at the same position on your screen. When the playhead is offscreen, the content to the left of the workspace stays at the same position on your screen.

When zooming vertically with the zoom sliders or Command-Arrow keys, the selected region stays at the same position on your screen. If no regions are selected, the selected track stays at the same position on your screen. It works! You start with an original but commanding beat with kicks and handclaps—then all of a sudden, the bass announces the melody with a few pickup notes while the beat drops. On the first beat of the next bar, all three tracks play the entire groove together.

That little break at the end of the intro really calls attention to the layered drum and bass groove that starts after the intro. Remember your newly acquired navigation and zooming skills.

You will continue using them to finish this arrangement, and throughout the rest of this book and long after. Build Up the Arrangement Now that you have the rhythmic foundation of your project the drums and bass , you can continue building up the arrangement and avoid monotony by adding melodic elements.

Adding Lead Synths In the next exercise, you will add a couple of synth arpeggio loops. And rather than let them loop throughout the song, you will keep things moving by alternating between the two synth melodies.

You already have a solid rhythmic section with bass and low kick drums, so now you are looking for rather clean and high-pitched sounds. If necessary, adjust the zoom level in the workspace so you can comfortably drag both loops to two new tracks. You will resize the Deal Breaker Arpeggio region to make it one bar long, the same length as the Barricade Arpeggio region. You will now copy both regions so they play alternately.

The two synths bring much-needed melody and movement to the song, and they work well in answering each other, each one successively playing its melody. Currently, both synths sound as if they are coming from the center of the stereo field. To give them a little space, you can spread them apart acoustically by positioning them to either side of the stereo field. If tracks are selected automatically when you select regions on those tracks, you can change this behavior in Logic preferences.

The track selection is unaffected by the region selection. You can now hear the two synths playing from opposite sides of the stereo field, which adds dimension to the music and helps separate the two instruments. Creating a Break Until now, you have kept your project interesting by introducing new elements on a regular basis: the bass at the end of the intro, the drums at bar 5, a synth at bar 9, and another synth at bar But if you keep building your song by adding more elements, at some point those additions may backfire.

The song can become bloated, with the arrangement losing focus, the mix becoming muddy, and the listeners tuning out. Who wants that?

By the end of the new synth section, the listeners are so used to hearing the drums and the bass that they may no longer pay attention to them. If you remove them, you can create a big impact. At the top of the Tracks area, look at the tool menus: The menu to the left corresponds to the tool assigned to the mouse pointer.

The menu to the right corresponds to the tool assigned to the mouse pointer when holding down Command. Currently, the left-click tool is assigned to the Pointer tool arrow icon and the Command-click tool is assigned to the Marquee tool crosshair icon.

Click it again to close it. The Loop Browser sometimes shows multiple loops with similar names, and that usually means that the loops all follow the same groove, they all follow the same chord progression, or they are meant to work together. The results list shows loops containing Skyline in their names. The loops sound like they would all work great together because they all follow the same harmony and rhythm.

You will now create the break by deleting the drums in track 2 and the bass in track 3 for the entire time the piano is playing. The Marquee tool places a white highlight rectangle around the selected section of the loops. The section of the loops selected by the Marquee tool is deleted. Some loops are turned into regions before and after the empty space, so the tracks stop and resume playing at the beginning and end of the removed section. The mouse pointer turns into a Loop tool.

Dragging offers the advantage of seeing the exact position in a help tag. The Fine Line Beat. The break brings much needed space and silence, interrupts the flow of the rhythmic section, and automatically shines a light on the two remaining elements: the drum loop and the piano. After the break, the rhythmic section resumes, but the ending at bar 21 is too abrupt. You will finally shorten the new copy of the piano region so it ends with a sustaining note, which will work better for an ending.

You have arranged your first song. Then two synths share the lead melody for a few bars before the bass and drums abruptly stop to leave room for a piano break. Finally, the bass and drums groove returns, and the song finishes with a few sustained piano notes.

Really nice! You will now quickly mix the song and later export it to share it. Mixing the Song Now that you have arranged your regions in the workspace, you can focus on the sound of each instrument and how they sound as an ensemble. Choosing Names and Icons for Tracks and Channel Strips You will open the Mixer and name your channel strips so you can easily determine which instrument they control. You will then adjust the Volume faders and Pan knobs to change levels and stereo positions, and use plug-ins to process some of the instruments.

At the bottom of the main window, the Mixer opens. The channel strips are named after the Apple Loops that you previously dragged to the workplace. To more quickly locate instruments, you can assign the channel strips more descriptive names. To edit the name on a track header and on its corresponding channel strip, you can double-click either and type the new name.

A text entry box appears, and the current name—Fine Line Beat—is selected. Both the first channel strip in the Mixer and track 1 in the Tracks area are renamed Beat Loop.

A text entry box opens. This time you will enter a name and open the text entry box of the next track with a single key command. Track 2 is renamed Drums.

Track 3 is renamed Bass, and track 4 is ready to be renamed. Should you enter a name incorrectly, press Shift-Tab to open the text entry box of the previous track or channel strip. Notice that track 2 has only a generic audio waveform icon.

A shortcut menu displays icons organized in categories. A collection of various drum icons appears. The icon is now visible in the track header. The same icon is also assigned to the corresponding channel strip in the Mixer, as you will see in a moment. When your creative juices are flowing, and you just want to make a quick adjustment to the sound of an instrument, wasting time looking for the correct track or channel strip can be frustrating. Or worse, you could become a victim of the classic mistake: turning knobs and faders but not hearing the sound reacting to your adjustments, until you realize you were adjusting the wrong instrument!

Taking a minute to assign your tracks and channel strips descriptive names and appropriate icons can accelerate your workflow and avoid potentially costly mistakes. You can see your new names at the bottom of the channel strips.

You can resize the Mixer area to see more of the channel strips. A Resize pointer appears. The Mixer is now taller, and you can see more options at the top of the channel strips. You will learn about those options as needed. In that case, you can drag the vertical scrollbar to the right of the Mixer to scroll up and see all the options.

With the Mixer open and occupying most of the main window, the workspace is much smaller. Depending on your display resolution, navigating your song efficiently may prove challenging or nearly impossible.

To remedy that, you will now adjust the locators in the Tracks area ruler and use Cycle mode to continuously repeat a part of the song that contains all the instruments. If necessary, scroll or zoom out in the workspace so you can see your entire arrangement. Remember: to see all your regions, click the background of the workspace and press Z.

Cycle mode is turned on, and a cycle area appears where you dragged. The cycle area spans the part of the song in which the two synths, the drums, and the bass play, so you can focus on adjusting the sounds of those instruments.

Playback starts at the beginning of the cycle area, and the playhead keeps repeating bars 9 through 13, where the two synths are playing. Synth 2 is significantly louder than Synth 1. Continue adjusting the Volume fader until the Gain display reads The Volume fader affects how much gain is applied to the audio signal flowing through the channel strip and, therefore, controls how loudly that instrument plays.

Synth 2 is now quieter and closer to the level of Synth 1. You will now adjust the Pan knobs on the two synth tracks to spread them farther apart in the stereo image. The synths sound too far apart now and seem disconnected from the rhythm section. The effect is even more pronounced if you listen to the song through headphones. The two synths come back closer to the center of the stereo field. Now they sound like they belong in the mix. Now you will apply effect plug-ins to process the audio signal flowing through the channel strip, thereby changing the tone of your instruments.

In this exercise, you will use a bass amp plug-in to add an edgier character to the bass, and a reverberation plug-in to bring warmth and dimension to the piano. When multiple formats are available in the menu, if you navigate to only the name of the plug-in, the most likely plug-in format is automatically used.

The Power button dims to indicate that the plug-in is off. You can hear what the bass sounds like without the plug-in.

It sounds a bit muffled and vaguely distant. The attacks of the bass notes sound brighter and have a little grit to them, giving the bass character.

The bass amp also made the bass a bit louder. In fact, it is a little too loud now. You will now add a plug-in to the Piano channel strip. But first you need to move the cycle area, so you can hear the piano. The piano immediately occupies more space and has more body. And in your arrangement, whenever the piano plays, not many other instruments are playing, so this setting works great. In the inspector, look at the peak level display on the Output channel strip. When a part of the song is too loud, the Output channel strip peak level display shows a positive value and turns red, indicating that the audio signal is distorted.

In this project, the highest peak in the song is under 0 dB FS, and no distortion is created. In a relatively short time, you have produced a one-minute instrumental song with six tracks, edited the regions in the workspace to build an arrangement, mixed the instruments in the Mixer, and added plug-ins to process their sounds.

You now have a piece of music that would work fine, for example, during the credits of a radio or TV show or as a music bed for a TV ad. Mixing Down to a Stereo File The last step is to mix down the music to a single stereo audio file so that anyone can play it on consumer-level audio software or hardware. In this exercise, you will bounce the project to a stereo audio file. By first selecting all your regions, you avoid the need to manually adjust the bounce start and end positions.

You can choose one or more Destination formats and adjust parameters for each format. You will bounce an MP3 format file that you can easily email or upload to a website. Below the Destination box, notice that the End position is correctly adjusted to the end of bar 23, when the last piano note finishes sustaining. A Bounce dialog opens. Bouncing creates a new stereo audio file on your hard drive. You will save the new MP3 file to your desktop. A Bouncing progress bar opens, and toward the end of the operation, an additional progress bar indicates the preparation of the MP3 file.

When the progress bars disappear, your MP3 file is ready on your desktop. Logic Pro X is hidden, and you can see your desktop. To unhide an app, press Command-Tab to select it. Your file starts playing. You can now share that MP3 file with all your friends and family! Lesson Review 1. Where is the inspector and what are its uses? Where is the Tracks area and what does it contain? Where is the control bar and what does it contain? Where is the workspace and what does it contain?

When multiple panes are open, how do you make sure the desired pane reacts to key commands? Describe two ways to adjust a numerical value in Logic. How do you copy a region? How do you resize a region? How do you loop a region? In the Mixer, where do you add effect plug-ins? In the help tag, what are the units of the four numeric values used to determine the length and position of a region? How many ticks are there in a sixteenth note? How do you mix down your project to a stereo audio file?

Answers 1. The inspector opens to the left of the Tracks area. Its contextual parameters adapt depending on which area has key focus, and what is selected. The Tracks area is in the center of the main window.

It contains the track headers to the left, the ruler at the top, and the workspace where you edit regions. The control bar is the row of buttons and displays at the top of your display. It contains transport buttons, information LCD displays, and mode buttons.

The workspace is in the Tracks area, to the right of the track headers and below the ruler, and it contains the regions used in your project. Drag the value vertically, or double-click it and enter a new value. Option-drag the region and always release the mouse button first, followed by the Option key. Place the mouse pointer over one of the two lower corners so it changes to a Resize pointer, and then drag horizontally. Select the region and press L, or select the Loop checkbox in the inspector.

In the Audio FX slots of the channel strips. Bars, beats, divisions, and ticks There are ticks in a sixteenth note. Goals Choose digital audio settings Record single and multitrack audio Record additional takes Record in Cycle mode Re-record sections by punching in manually and automatically Adjust count-in, metronome, and other settings Delete unused audio files To build a song, you need to come up with the raw material you will later arrange and mix.

You might start with an idea you have in your head, a part you rehearsed on an instrument, or a prerecorded sample or loop, or you may just start experimenting until inspiration strikes.

To sustain and develop that initial inspiration, you need to master the techniques that Logic offers to record, create, and edit the audio and MIDI regions that constitute the building blocks of your project.

In this lesson, you will configure Logic for audio recording and study activities you will typically perform when working with live musicians: recording a single instrument, recording additional takes of the same instrument, cycle recording, multitrack recording, punching on the fly, and automatic punching. Setting Up Digital Audio Recording Before you record audio in Logic, you must connect a sound source such as a microphone, an electric guitar, or a synthesizer to your Mac.

You then choose the desired recording settings and adjust the recording level of your sound source to avoid distortion. In the following exercises, you will set up Logic to prepare for a music recording.

The microphone transforms sound pressure waves into an analog electrical signal. The microphone preamp amplifies the analog electrical signal. A gain knob lets you set a proper recording level and avoid distortion. The audio interface sends the digital data stream from the converter to the computer. Logic Pro saves the incoming data as an audio file displayed on the screen by a waveform representing the sound pressure waves. To convert the analog signal into a digital data stream, the digital converters sample the analog signal at a very fast time interval, or sample rate.

The sample rate identifies how many times per second the audio is digitally sampled. The bit depth identifies the number of data bits used to encode the value of each sample. The sample rate and bit depth settings determine the quality of a digital audio recording.

Logic does not exert any influence over the quality of your recordings. Also, most modern Mac computers include a built-in audio interface. Many Mac notebook computers and iMac computers even have internal microphones. Although those microphones are generally not intended to produce professional-quality recording, you can use the internal microphones to perform the exercises in this lesson in the absence of an external microphone. By default, Logic records with a bit depth of 24 bits, which is fine for most uses.

However, you may need to use different sample rates for different projects. Playing an audio file at the wrong sample rate will result in the wrong pitch and tempo, much like playing an audiotape or vinyl record at the wrong transport speed.

The Project Settings window opens, and you can see your Audio settings. By default, the sample rate is set to To determine which sample rate to choose, consider the sample rate of any prerecorded material you will use such as samples and the sample rate of the target delivery medium. Some producers who make intensive use of Traditionally, music is recorded at Choosing an Audio Interface In most situations, Logic automatically detects an audio interface when you connect it to your Mac and asks if you want to use that interface.

If you choose to use it, Logic selects that interface as both an input and output device in its audio preferences. The Audio preferences appear. The Output Device is the device connected to your monitors or headphones. The Input Device is the device into which you plug your microphones or instruments. If you do not have an audio interface connected to your Mac, choose from the built-in output and input devices.

If you choose a new output or input device, Logic automatically reinitializes the Core Audio engine when you close the window. Recording a Single Track In this example, you will record a single instrument. The exercise describes recording an electric guitar plugged directly into an instrument input on your audio interface, but feel free to record your voice or any instrument you have.

Preparing a Track for Recording To record audio, you first have to create a new audio track, select the correct input the input number on your audio interface where the guitar is plugged in , and enable that new track for recording. When adding tracks, the new tracks are inserted below the selected track.

To create a new track at the bottom of the Tracks area, you first need to select the bottom track. The New Tracks dialog appears. You can record-enable the track by selecting the Record Enable option below the Output menu; however, in some situations creating a recordenabled track may produce feedback. You will later take precautions to avoid feedback and then record-enable the track from the track header.

A new audio track set to Input 1 is created. Logic automatically assigns the new track to the next available channel. Since six audio tracks were created when you dragged Apple Loops in Lesson 1, the new track is assigned to the Audio 7 channel and is automatically named Audio 7.

More descriptive names will help you identify files in the future. The new track has a generic audio waveform icon. You can now hear your guitar and see its input level on the Guitar channel strip meter in the inspector.

This delay is called latency. You can monitor the audio routed to record-enabled tracks while Logic is stopped, playing, or recording. Otherwise, you will be monitoring the signal twice, resulting in a flangy or robotic sound. To emulate the character a guitar amp can give to a guitar sound, you can use Amp Designer, a guitar amplifier modeling plug-in.

Note that you are still recording a dry guitar sound. The effect plug-in processes the dry audio signal in real time during the recording and playback. Recording a dry signal means that you can continue fine-tuning the effect plug-ins or exchange them for other plug-ins after the recording is completed. Amp Designer opens. Here, you can dial in a sound or choose a preset. You can now hear your guitar processed through Amp Designer. Adjusting the Recording Level Before recording, make sure you can monitor the sound through Logic, and then adjust the source audio level to avoid overloading the converters.

On the channel strip, look at the peak level meter, and make sure it always stays below 0 dBFS decibels full scale, the unit used to measure levels in digital audio ; a level above 0 dBFS would indicate that you are clipping the input of your converter. Keep in mind that you need to adjust the audio level before the converter input by using your microphone preamp gain knob. Allow some headroom, especially if you know that the artist might play or sing louder during the actual recording.

Working with a low-level recording is better than clipping the input. Some interfaces also support other input settings, such as phantom power, hi-pass filter, and phase. If the Gain knob is dimmed, it means that the feature is not supported by your audio interface. Make sure the peak sits comfortably below 0 dBFS: the wider the dynamic range of the source, the more headroom it needs to avoid clipping. When your signal peaks below —2. When it peaks between —2. When it peaks above 0 dBFS, the peak level meter turns red to indicate the audio is clipping.

Tuning the Instrument Making sure an instrument is in tune before recording is always a good idea. The Tuner opens.

Checking the Balance Now that the guitar is tuned, you can practice the performance and make sure that you can hear yourself and the other instruments comfortably. If the guitar is now too loud or too soft in comparison to the other tracks, in the inspector, drag the volume fader on the Guitar channel strip to adjust the monitoring level, or drag the volume slider in the Guitar track header. Recording Audio You have set the desired sample rate, adjusted the recording and monitoring levels, inserted a plug-in to emulate the sound of a guitar amp, and tuned the instrument.

You are now ready to start recording. The playhead is positioned at bar If you need to adjust the position of the playhead, drag it left or right.

The playhead and the LCD display in the control bar both turn red to indicate that Logic is recording. The playhead jumps one bar earlier and gives you a four-beat count-in with an audible metronome click before the recording starts.

You will learn how to alter both the metronome and the count-in settings later in this lesson. The new recording, Guitar 01, appears as a blue-shaded audio region. To the name of the track, Logic appends the number of the recording. The playhead jumps to the beginning of the selected region and playback starts.

If you are not happy with your new recording, you can delete it and start over. In the Finder, the audio file is moved from inside the project package to the Trash. The audio file stays in the Project Audio Browser and is still present inside the project package, allowing you to later drag it back to the workspace if necessary.

This alert appears only when you try to delete a recording made since you most recently opened the project. When deleting an audio region that was previously recorded, the behavior corresponding to the Keep option is automatically applied and an alert does not appear. You will keep your recording so you can experiment with recording additional takes in the next exercise.

Recording Additional Takes When recording a live performance, musicians can make mistakes. Rather than deleting the previous recording and repeatedly recording until you get a flawless performance, you can record several takes repeat performances of the same musical part and later choose the best take, or even combine the best parts of each take to create a comp composite take.

To preserve multiple takes in Logic, you can record new performances over previous ones. The new recording in red appears to be recorded over the previous blue audio region. Both the original recording Take 1 and the new recording Take 2 have been saved into a take folder. The take folder is on the Guitar track. It is currently open, so the two takes you recorded are displayed on subtracks below. By default, the take folder plays the most recent take you recorded: Take 2, in this case.

The previous take, Take 1, is dimmed and muted. The track is disarmed, and you can no longer hear the sound coming from Input 1 on your audio interface. The take folder now contains three takes. It plays back the most recent one, Take 3, while the two previous ones, Take 1 and Take 2, are muted.

Recording in Cycle mode allows you to repeatedly record a single section, thereby creating a new take for each pass of the cycle. When you stop recording, all the takes are saved inside a take folder. The Guitar track is automatically record-enabled. The playhead jumps a bar ahead of the cycle for a one-measure count-in, and starts recording the first take. When it reaches bar 9, the end of the cycle area, it jumps back to bar 5 and starts recording a new take.

Logic keeps looping the cycle area, recording new takes until you stop recording. Record two or three takes. All the takes recorded in Cycle mode are packed into a take folder.

The Guitar track is automatically disabled for recording. To keep the last take of a cycle recording, make sure you stop the recording more than one bar after the beginning of the cycle area. The take folder closes. Doing so allows you to record several instruments at once, placing each instrument on a separate track, so that you can later adjust their volumes and stereo positions or process them individually.

You first create the desired number of tracks, making sure that each track is assigned to a different input number that corresponds to the input number on your audio interface where the microphone is plugged in.

In the following exercise, you will record two mono tracks at the same time, which you can do using the built-in Mac audio interface. To record more than two tracks at once, you need an audio interface with more than two inputs. The exercise describes recording an acoustic guitar on Input 1 and a vocal microphone on Input 2. When creating multiple tracks, selecting Ascending automatically sets the inputs or outputs to ascending settings.

In this case, you will create two tracks, so the first will be assigned to Input 1 and the second to Input 2. Make sure that you took precautions to avoid feedback, as explained at the beginning of this lesson; this time you will create record-enabled tracks. Two new tracks are added at the bottom of the Tracks area and automatically assigned to the next available audio channels Audio 8 and Audio 9.

Their inputs are set to Input 1 and Input 2, and both are record-enabled. The multitrack recording starts, and after a one-measure count-in, you see the red playhead appear to the left of the workspace, creating two red regions, one on each record-enabled track.

You now have a new blue-shaded audio region on each track. You can use the same procedure to simultaneously record as many tracks as needed. If the tracks already exist in the Tracks area, make sure you assign them the correct inputs, record-enable them, and start recording. Punching In and Out When you want to correct a specific section of a recording—usually to fix a performance mistake—you can restart playback before the mistake, punch in to engage recording just before the section you wish to fix, and then punch out to stop recording immediately after the section while playback continues.

This technique allows you to fix smaller mistakes in a recording while still listening to the continuity of the performance. At any time, you can open the take folder and select the original recording. There are two punching methods: on the fly and automatic. Punching on the fly allows you to press a key to punch in and out while Logic plays, whereas automatic punching requires you to identify the autopunch area in the ruler before recording. Punching on the fly is fast but usually requires an engineer to perform the punch-in and punch-out while the musician is performing.

Automatic punching is ideal for the musician-producer who is working alone. Assigning Key Commands To punch on the fly, you will use the Record Toggle command, which is unassigned by default. Click the disclosure triangle next to Global Commands. The Key Commands window lists all available Logic commands and their keyboard shortcuts, if any.

When looking for a specific functionality in Logic Pro X, open the Key Commands window and try to locate the function using the search field. A command likely exists for that functionality that may or may not be assigned. When Learn by Key Label is selected, you can press a key, or a key plus a combination of modifiers Command, Control, Shift, Option , to create a keyboard command for the selected function. An alert indicates that the R key is already assigned to the Record command.

You could click Replace to assign R to Record Toggle, but then Record would no longer be assigned to a keyboard shortcut. Control-J is now listed in the Key column next to Record Toggle, indicating that the command was successfully assigned. Punching on the Fly You will now use the Record Toggle key command you assigned in the previous exercise to punch on the Vocals track the bottom track in your Tracks area.

When punching on the fly, you may first want to play the performance to determine which section needs to be re-recorded, and to be ready to punch in and out at the desired locations. Position your fingers on the keyboard to be ready to press your Record Toggle key command when you reach the point where you want to punch in. The playhead continues moving, but Logic is now recording a new take on top of the previous recording.

Keep your fingers in position to be ready to punch out. The recording stops while the playhead continues playing the project. On the Vocals track, a take folder was created. It contains your original recording Take 1 and the new take Take 2. A comp is automatically created Comp A that combines the original recording up to the punch-in point, the new take between the punch-in and punch-out points, and the original recording after the punch-out point.

Fades are automatically applied at the punch-in and punch-out points. You will learn more about fades in Lesson 3. The take folder disappears, and you once again see the Vocals 01 region on the Vocals track. Punching on the fly is a great technique that allows the musician to focus on his performance while the engineer takes care of punching in and out at the right times.

On the other hand, if you worked alone through this exercise and tried to punch in and punch out while playing your instrument or singing, you realize how challenging it can be. When working alone, punching automatically is recommended. Punching Automatically To prepare for automatic punching, you enable the Autopunch mode and set the autopunch area. Setting the punch-in and punch-out points in advance allows you to focus entirely on your performance during recording.

First, you will customize the control bar to add the Autopunch button. The ruler becomes taller to accommodate for the red autopunch area. The autopunch area defines the section to be re-recorded. You can define the autopunch area with more precision when you can clearly see where the mistakes are on the audio waveform. Logic zooms in, and the selected region fills the workspace.

Here we have a vocal recording in which the two words around bar 3 need to be re-recorded. Listen while watching the playhead move over the waveform to determine which part of the waveform corresponds to the words you need to replace. You can drag the edges of the autopunch area to resize it, or drag the entire area to move it. Red vertical guidelines help you align the punch-in and punch-out points with the waveform.

Playback starts. When the playhead reaches the punch-in point the left edge of the autopunch area , the Record button turns solid red and Logic starts recording a new take. When the playhead reaches the punch-out point the right edge of the autopunch area , the recording stops but the playback continues. A take folder, Vocals: Comp A, is created on the track. Logic zooms out so you can see the entire take folder filling the workspace.

Just as when you punched on the fly in the previous exercise, a comp is automatically created that plays the original recording up to the punch-in point, inserts the new take between the punch-in and punch-out points, and continues with the original recording after the punch-out point. When a marquee selection is present, starting a recording automatically turns on the Autopunch mode, and the autopunch area matches the marquee selection.

Recording Without a Metronome Musicians often use a tempo reference when recording. In most modern music genres, when live drums are used, drummers record their performance while listening to a metronome or a click track. When electronic drums are used, they are often recorded or programmed first, and then quantized to a grid so that they follow a constant tempo.

The other musicians later record their parts while listening to this drum track. Still, some musicians prefer to play to their own beat and record their instrumental tracks without following a metronome, click track, or drum track. When recording audio in Logic, you can set up Smart Tempo to analyze a recording and automatically create a tempo map that follows the performance so that the notes end up on the correct bars and beats. Subsequent recording or MIDI programming can then follow that tempo map, ensuring that all tracks play in sync.

An empty project template opens, and the New Tracks dialog opens. To make Logic analyze the audio recording and create a corresponding tempo map, you should set the Project Tempo mode to Adapt. The orange color indicates that those parameters will be affected by a new recording.

Get ready to record. Because the Project Tempo mode is set to Adapt, the metronome does not automatically play unlike the Project Tempo mode set to Keep mode. You no longer need it! Try playing something that has an obvious rhythmic quality to it, such as a staccato rhythm part in which you can clearly distinguish the individual chords or notes.

During the recording, Logic displays red vertical lines over the recording when it detects beats. An alert offers to open the File Tempo Editor so you can preview the recording and adjust the positions of the beat markers that Logic created while analyzing the file. In the Global Tempo track, you can see multiple tempo changes. In that case, perform this exercise again, making sure you can hear a strong rhythmic reference in your recording. For example, try tapping a very basic beat with your fingers in front of the microphone.

You have recorded a rubato performance without listening to a timing reference. Logic automatically detected your tempo changes and applied them to the project tempo. Some settings do not affect the quality of the audio recording but can alter the behavior of your project during recording or change the audio file format used for recordings.

The next few exercises will show you how those settings affect the audio recording process and explain how to modify them. Setting the Count-In The count-in is the time you have to prepare yourself and get in the groove before the actual recording begins.

The take folder is deleted. Until now, every time you pressed Record, the playhead jumped to the beginning of the previous measure so you could have a four-beat count-in. However, sometimes you may want to start recording without a count-in. The playhead starts from its current position, and Logic starts recording right away. At other times, you may need a longer count-in, or you may want Logic to count in for a specific number of beats. The audio region is removed from the workspace, but the audio file is still in the project folder.

The playhead jumps two bars ahead to bar 3, and playback starts. When the playhead reaches bar 5, Logic starts recording. Setting the Metronome By default, the metronome is turned off during playback and automatically plays during recording. In this exercise, you will change the default behaviors using the Metronome button and later go into the Metronome settings to adjust its sounds.

The metronome is on. The metronome is off. The metronome is back on. You now have inverted the default behavior: the metronome is on during playback and is automatically turned off during recording. The Metronome Settings window opens. There are settings for two metronomes: Audio Click also known as Klopfgeist, which is German for knocking ghost , which you are using, and MIDI Click, which is now off. Under the name of each metronome, you can adjust the pitch and velocity of the notes playing on each bar and beat.

The metronome sounds a little low compared to the drum loop on track 1. In fact, you can hear it only when no drum hit occurs on that beat. At the bottom of the Metronome Settings window, you can drag a couple of sliders to adjust the sound of the metronome.

The metronome sound changes, and you can start hearing a pitch. When a project already contains a drum track, you may need the metronome only during the count-in to get into the groove before the song starts.

You hear the metronome for one measure, and then it stops playing as the song and the recording start at bar 1. It places a number of samples in an input buffer for recording and in an output buffer for monitoring.

When a buffer is full, Logic processes or transmits the entire buffer. The larger the buffers, the less computing power is required from the CPU. The advantage of using larger input and output buffers is that the CPU has more time to calculate other processes, such as instrument and effects plug-ins. The drawback to using a larger buffer is that you may have to wait a bit for the buffer to fill before you can monitor your signal. That means a longer delay between the original sound and the one you hear through Logic, a delay called roundtrip latency.

Usually, you want the shortest possible latency when recording and the most available CPU processing power when mixing so that you can use more plugins.

The Audio preferences pane opens. When choosing a different audio device, make sure you click Apply Changes to update the Resulting Latency value displayed. The latency is now shorter. If your Mac has a multicore CPU, you can see a meter for each core. You can monitor the amount of work each core is doing. When the CPU works harder, you might hear pops and crackles while the song plays.

When playing the project becomes too much work for the CPU, playback stops and you will see an error alert. Deleting Unused Audio Files The Project Audio Browser shows all the audio files and audio regions that have been imported or recorded in your project. During a recording session, the focus is on capturing the best possible performance, and you may want to avoid burdening yourself with the decision making that comes with deleting bad takes.

You may also have several unused audio files in the Project Audio Browser that make the project package or folder bigger than it needs to be. In this next exercise, you will select and delete all unused audio files from your hard drive.

The audio data in the audio file stays intact, and the regions merely point to different sections of the audio file. You will learn more about nondestructive editing in Lesson 3. If a Delete alert appears, select Keep and click OK. The regions are removed from the workspace, but their parent audio files are still present in the Project Audio Browser. All the audio files that do not have an associated region in the workspace are selected. While the region plays, a small white playhead travels through the regions.

Once you feel satisfied that the selected audio files do not contain any useful material, you can delete them. An alert asks you to confirm the deletion. The audio files are removed from the Project Audio Browser. In the Finder, the files are moved to the Trash. You are now ready to tackle many recording situations: you can record a single track or multiple tracks, add new takes in a take folder, and fix mistakes by punching on the fly or automatically.

You know where to adjust the sample rate, and you understand which settings affect the behavior of the software during a recording session. And you can reduce the file size of your projects by deleting unused audio files—which will save disk space, and download and upload time should you wish to collaborate with other Logic users over the Internet. What two fundamental settings affect the quality of a digital audio recording? In Logic, where can you find the sample rate setting?

What precaution must you take before record-enabling multiple tracks simultaneously? In Autopunch mode, how do you set the punch-in and punch-out points? Describe an easy way to access your Metronome settings. Describe an easy way to access your count-in settings. In the Project Audio Browser, when selecting unused files, what determines whether a file is used or unused?

The sample rate and the bit depth 2. Make sure the tracks are assigned different inputs. Adjust the left and right edge of the autopunch area in the middle of the ruler. Control-click the Metronome button, and choose Metronome settings. The CPU works less hard so you can use more plug-ins, but the roundtrip latency is longer. An audio file is considered unused when no regions present in the workspace refer to that file. Goals Assign Left-click and Command-click tools Edit audio regions nondestructively in the workspace Add fades and crossfades Create a composite take from multiple takes Import audio files Edit audio regions nondestructively in the Audio Track Editor Align audio using the Flex tool Audio engineers have always looked for new ways to edit recordings.

In the days of magnetic recording, they used razor blades to cut pieces of a recording tape and then connected those pieces with special adhesive tape. They could create a smooth transition or crossfade between two pieces of magnetic tape by cutting at an angle.

Digital audio workstations revolutionized audio editing. The waveform displayed on the screen is a visual representation of the digital audio recordings stored on the hard disk. The ability to read that waveform and manipulate it using the Logic editing tools is the key to precise and flexible audio editing. In this lesson, you will edit audio regions nondestructively in the workspace and the Audio Track Editor, and add fades and crossfades. You will open a take folder and use Quick Swipe Comping to create a single composite take.

Even as your ability to read waveforms and use the Logic editing tools develops, never forget to use your ears and trust them as the final judge of your work. Assigning Mouse Tools Until now, you have exclusively worked with the default tools.

You have also used keyboard modifiers such as Control-Option to choose the Zoom tool, and changed the pointer to tools such as the Resize or Loop tools. When editing audio in the workspace, you will need to access even more tools. In the Tracks area and in various editors , two menus are available to assign the Left-click tool and the Command-click tool.

Previewing and Naming Regions During recording sessions, helping the talent produce the best possible performance often takes priority over secondary tasks such as naming regions. In this exercise, you will assign tools to the mouse pointer. You will use the Solo tool to preview the audio regions on the new Guitar track, and apply the Text tool to rename them.

You can hear a region play back in solo mode by placing the Solo tool over the region and holding down the mouse button. In the control bar, the Solo button turns on, and the LCD display and the playhead both turn yellow. The region is soloed, and you can play back starting from the location where you placed the Solo tool. You can also drag the Solo tool to scrub the region. You can change the playback speed or direction by dragging the Solo tool to the right or to the left.

You can hear that the guitar is playing single, muted notes, so you will give it a descriptive name based on those notes. If you hold down Command when your pointer is over a region, it changes to the Text tool. A text field appears, in which you can enter a new name for the region. You can hear some dead notes at the beginning of this take folder, and about a bar of funk rhythm guitar in bar You will edit this take folder later in this lesson.

In those regions, the guitar sustains chords, so you will name the regions after the chord names. Instead of moving back and forth from the workspace to the tool menus in the Tracks area menu bar, you can press T to open the Tool menu at the current pointer position. A Tool menu appears at the pointer position. This key command will save you a lot of trips to the title bar. You can also Command-click a tool in the pop-up Tool menu to assign it to the Command-click tool.

The Tool menu opens and closes, and the Left-click tool reverts to the Pointer tool. Both tools are back to their default assignments: the Pointer tool for the Left-click tool and the Marquee tool for the Command-click tool. Editing Regions in the Workspace Editing audio regions in the workspace is nondestructive. Regions are merely pointers that identify parts of an audio file. When you cut and resize regions in the workspace, only those pointers are altered.

No processing is applied to the original audio files, which remain untouched on your hard disk. As a result, editing in the workspace provides a lot of flexibility and room for experimentation because you can always adjust your edits at a later date.

In this next exercise, you will edit the Muted Single Notes region on the Guitar track. In the Snap menu, a checkmark appears in front of the modes you choose. The help tag shows that the region length is now 4 0 0 0. You will now repeat the simple motif in the last two bars of the Muted Single Notes region a couple more times, from bars 9 to 13, where the synthesizers play. The Command-click tool is now the Marquee tool, and the Left-click tool is the Pointer tool. This is a very powerful tool combination when editing audio in the workspace.

You can select a section of an audio region with the Marquee tool, and move or copy that selection using the Pointer tool. The section you selected with the Marquee tool is highlighted. The playhead jumps to bar 7 and plays the selection. It corresponds exactly to the two-bar pattern of the guitar you are going to copy. Option-dragging a marquee selection automatically divides, copies, and pastes the selection to a new location regardless of region boundaries.

In this example, the two-bar guitar pattern is copied and pasted at bar 9. Remember to release the mouse button first and the Option key second. When the mouse button is released, the original region is automatically restored. The guitar plays a melodic riff with high notes when it first comes in, and then it plays more discretely throughout the following sections, leaving room for the two synths to shine. Still, you can bring back a little bit of the excitement just before the breakdown at bar This last region brings back a welcome variation to the monotonous pattern that the guitar has been playing for the past five bars, returning in time to lead to the break in the next section.

Now you know how to select the desired material within a region and move or copy that material anywhere on the track. Comping Takes In the previous lesson, you recorded several takes of a guitar performance and packed them into a take folder. Now you will learn how to preview those individual takes and assemble a composite take by choosing sections from multiple takes, a process called comping.

Comping techniques are useful when you have recorded several takes of the same musical phrase, each with its good and bad qualities. In the first take, the musician may have messed up the beginning but played the ending perfectly.

And in the following take, he nailed the beginning and made a mistake at the end. You can create a perfectly played comp using the beginning of the second take and the ending of the first take. You can use the same comping techniques to create a single musical passage from multiple musical ideas.

As they improvise in the studio, musicians will often record a few takes and later comp the best ideas of each performance into a new, virtual performance.

Previewing the Takes Before you start comping, you need to become familiar with the takes you are going to comp. While doing so, you will assign the takes different colors to help distinguish between them, and then decide which part of which take you will use. The selected take folder and its takes fill the workspace.

The take folder is on the Guitar track, and the three takes it contains are on lanes below the Guitar track. Take 3 at the top is selected and is the take currently playing. The other takes are dimmed to indicate that they are muted.

This is useful when you need to assign other regions the same color. Take 1 is purple. You will keep the blue color for Take 2, and choose a new color for Take 3. The selected take, Take 3, plays. This time the first bar sounds good, but the second bar is rather messy; the third bar sounds good, and then the guitar player plays the wrong chord and stops.


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