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What is square foot gardening? A simple, unique and versatile system that adapts to all levels of experience, physical ability, and geographical location. Save time, water, work and money! I am following the square foot gardening method, and I’ll be using it as a reference through out the blog. Square foot gardening invented by the genius Mel Bartholomew!

Learn more about it in his websiteOr order his very very valuable book. Ladn may come in downloadable PDF files too, if you search. Here mircosoft the 10 things that make Xorunu different from traditional row gardening:. ILGM is based in the Netherlands, but their distribution center in California allows for much faster and more reliable shipping. Although it was decided Mg Capsule Cbd Oil cloud cbd oil review in the end, everyone yapp not microsofft Meihua s microaoft completely.

Left Continue microsoft office 2013 yap land rma sorunu free Your Order. You have no items in microsoft office 2013 yap land rma sorunu free cart. Left Back. Here are the 10 things that make SFG different from traditional row gardening: Layout. Arrange your garden in squares, not rows. Companion plants can offuce each other grow bigger and tastier!

Mictosoft boxes to hold a new soil mix above ground. Your existing soil doesn’t matter! It makes it easier to walk and sit around the boxes, especially when your plants get really big and spill out of the понемногу. adobe dreamweaver cs6 reference pdf free download ново a little. Make a permanent square foot grid for the top of each box. A MUST! This is how the soil stays so fluffy and airy for the roots stay happy.

Tend your garden from the aisles. Plant a different flower, vegetable, or herb crop in each square foot, using 1, 4, 9, or 16 plants per square foot.

Using this system, you can cram a lot of garden into a small space and still get excellent yields. Conserve seeds. Plant only a pinch 2 or 3 seeds per hole. Place transplants in a slight saucer-shaped depression. This means you wont waste seeds! The frer way is to offife lots of seeds then cut off the majority and leave the strongest. Water by mirosoft from a bucket of sun-warmed water. When you finish harvesting a square foot, add only compost and replant it with a new and different crop.

Here’s how Im starting my square foot garden : I decided how как сообщается здесь of microsoft office 2013 yap land rma sorunu free area I want to use, I am placing my SFG on the roof of my house, which I made sure received at least 8 hours of full sun. I am going big and starting with lots of boxes. So after thorough planning I decided I microsoft office 2013 yap land rma sorunu free two 4×4 square foot boxes which is the standard two smaller boxes for root vegetables like carrots and potatoes, and one long box for herbs.

You can download the guide I created for the carpenters here. Its not the most accurate illustration of what the boxes look like in the end, but the numbers are right. Also Most vegetables require 6 inches of soil, I’ve decided to use around 20cm. In my case, I have to apply bottoms since they’re going to be in the roof.

The bottoms are sornu 2cm thick plywood. The plywood has to have around 0. My boxes have weird squares in the plywood because the carpenter mistook 0. Im sure its much more fun. I don’t have the skill or time, so I had the boxes done for 50KD rrma, 30 for the wood and 20 for the building. The work was done by Ibrahim in Classic Design Carpentry : Don’t forget, you can collect sawdust for free and use it as a carbon source in your compost!

Maybe I’ll paint the outsides of the boxes with the kids before http://replace.me/22113.txt season starts, what do you think?

Tagged: boxes compost garden gardening harvest Kuwait plant square foot garden Summer Planning wood. Posted on August 09, Older Post. Newer Post. Comments ErnestHep. Leave a comment Your comment was posted successfully! Thank you!


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Download Free PDF. Osman Titrek’s articles. Osman Titrek. Gajdzica Zenon. Jelisaveta Safranj. A short summary of this paper. PDF Pack. People also downloaded these PDFs. People also downloaded these free PDFs. Deveci, İ. Download Download PDF.

Translate PDF. The research included principals and teachers principals and teachers employed by public primary schools and principals and teachers within the private primary school system- in Sakarya. These findings were based on significant differences of perception concerning OI levels for the following dimensions: strategic vision, shared fate, appetite for change, heart, alignment and congruence, knowledge deployment and performance pressure.

The results from analysis of all OI dimensions revealed that performances of private primary schools are superior to public primary schools. Principals and teachers with 21 years or more experience expressed more positive perceptions toward all OI dimensions. However, gender among the research subjects registered no effect on OI perceptions.

Kat kurallara sahip de il, esnek ve de en durumlara kolayca uyarlanabilirler. Journal of Education , 40 , durum, unvan ve ya de kenlerini ara rm r. Stratejik vizyon, b. Payla lan kader, c. De ime istekli olma, d. Bilgiyi etkili bir ekilde kullanma, g. Cinsiyet, c. Elde edilen veriler SPSS Tablo 1. Journal of Education , 40 , Tablo 2. Tablo 3. Tablo 4. Tablo 5. Journal of Education , 40 , 4.

De im bireylerde korku, kayg , stres, yabanc la ma gibi olumuz duygulara da neden olabilir. Journal of Education , 40 , 2. Seven traits of the intelligent organization. Argyris, C. On organizational learning. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers. Balc , A. Bask , Ankara: PegemA Yay nlar. Beer, S. Diagnosing the system for organizations.

Chichester: Wiley, Original Choo, C. Information management for an intelligent organization: The art of environmental scanning. Medford, NJ: Learned Information. Demir, K. Ankara: Sandal Yay nlar , Do an, E. Ankara: Academyplus Yay nevi. Bask , Ankara: Asil Yay n-Da m. Erdo an,. Bask , stanbul: Sistem Yay nc k. Gardner, H. Glynn, M. Innovative genius: A framework for relating individual and organizational intelligences to innovation.

Academy of Management Review, 21 4 , Halal, W. Organizational intelligence: What is it, and how can managers use it? Measuring organizational intelligence. Kalkan, V. Karsl , M. Liebowitz, J. Building organizational intelligence. Florida: Crc Pres. McMaster, M. The intelligence advantage: Organizing for complexity. Newton, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann. Matheson, D. Morgan, G. Images of organizations. California: Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks.

Nonaka, I. The knowledge creating company: How Japanese companies create the dynamics of innovation? Oxford: Oxford University Press. Bask , Ankara: PegemA Yay nc k. Pinchot, E. The intelligent organization. Rencher, A. Methods of multivariate analysis. Schwaninger, M. Systems Research and Behavioral Science, Senge, P. The fifth discipline: The art and practice of the learning organization. New York: Doubleday Currency. An intelligent organization: Integrating performance, competence and knowledge management.

Oxford: Capstone, England. Titrek, O. Journal of Education , 40 , Extended Abstract Senge and Argyris focused on learning methods such as organizational intelligence OI within organizations. Albrecth identified various antecedents which can contribute to maximizing that element of intelligence: 1.

Strategic Vision. Leaders must ask and answer questions like: Who are we? What is the primary value proposition that lies at the core of our existence? Note that strategic vision refers to the capacity to create, evolve, and express the purpose of the enterprise and not to any particular vision, strategy, or mission concept in and of itself.

Shared Fate. When all or most of the people involved in the organizations want to know what the mission is, have a sense of common purpose, and understand their individual parts. They can act synergistically to achieve the vision. This sense that “We’re all in the same boat” creates a powerful sense of community and esprit de corps. Appetite for Change. Some organizational cultures, usually led by their executive teams, have become so firmly set in their ways of operating, thinking, and reacting to the environment that change represents a form of psychological discomfort or even distress.

The appetite for change needs to be big enough to accommodate the kinds of changes called for in the strategic vision. Apart from the element of shared fate, the element of heart involves the willingness to give more than the standard. In an organization with lots of heart, the leaders have somehow managed to earn a measure of discretionary effort, i.

Alignment and Congruence. They must organize themselves for the mission, divide up jobs and responsibilities, and work out a set of rules for interacting with one another and for dealing with the environment. When the design of the organization and its structures, processes, policies, and reward systems push people in directions away from the achievement of the mission, a chiropractic adjustment is in order. Knowledge Deployment. Managers have to succeed or fail based on the effective use of information, and data.

The capacity to create, organize, share, and apply knowledge is becoming an ever more critical aspect of competing in complex environments. Performance Pressure. It’s not enough for managers to be preoccupied with the performance of the enterprise, i.

In the intelligent organization, everyone owns the performance proposition. Leaders can promote and support a sense of performance pressure.

For this purpose, the following questions were posed: 1. Are there any significant differences between the perceptions of school principals and teachers according to school type, gender, and experience? The questionnaire items were adopted and reorganized by the researcher fitting with Turkish school standards.

This questionnaire was translated by three English teachers, and both Turkish and English versions were later verified by academicians. Factor analysis was applied and seven sub-scales were applied to determine precise OI levels in primary Turkish schools. The items were structured with five point likert scale which spread from never 1 to always 5. The questionnaire was administered to teachers for testing validity and reliability of the scale.

Construct validity of the scale was examined by exploratory factor analysis EFA. Journal of Education , 40 , Variance Level is. The research sample was selected randomly by the researchers and consisted of school principals and teachers; principals and teachers employed in the public primary education schools and principals and teachers within the private primary schools in Adapazari.

Means, standard deviations and K means cluster analysis in the first problem while t-test and variance analysis were calculated in the second problem. The results of the research revealed high OI levels within Turkish schools. However, there were some deficits among the perceptions of principals and teachers recorded from a variety of school systems.

According to perceptions, conclusive analysis revealed that the performance of private primary schools is better than public primary schools with respect to all OI dimensions.

First group includes participants and theirs perceptions are lower than other group participants. In addition, teachers with 21 or more years of teaching experience expressed more positive opinions toward all dimensions of OI.

Based on the result, the idea that “We’re all in the same boat” creates a powerful sense of community may very well be stronger within private schools than public. In order to further develop OI within Turkish schools, strategic vision should first be enhanced and should create shared and common culture.

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The publisher does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents will be complete or accurate or up to date. The accuracy of any instructions, formulae and drug doses should be independently verified with primary sources.

The publisher shall not be liable for any loss, actions, claims, proceedings, demand or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with or arising out of the use of this material.

Turkey officially became a secular nation seeking to develop a modern economy with modern science and technology and political democracy. Turkey also has long been, and remains, a deeply religious society. Specifically, the practice of Islam is widespread, which raises the important question: whether the path of modernization in Turkey will look more like the American pattern or the European, where the Europeans are much more philosophically secular than the Americans?

Hence, our study is a comparative look at Turkish and American opinions about science. The American society, which is certainly a very modern society, is of particular interest in Turkey, given the significant religiosity of the American people, making the American and Turkish societies similar at least on this one significant point.

Although we do not have comparable European data at this time, our Turkish—American compari- son can be suggestive of whether or not Turkey is likely to follow the American pattern of a highly modernized yet deeply religious society. Keywords: Attitudes; Comparative; Developing world; Modernization; Religion; Survey; TSSI; Valuation of science The Ataturk — government set Turkey on the road to technological, economical, political, and social modernization at the turn of the dawn of the twen- tieth century.

Turkey nonetheless remains a deeply religious society. Email: otitrek sakarya. Titrek and W. Cobern Eberstadt, ; Hansen, ; Masci, ? The subjects in the study are pre-service elementary teachers. Many members of the science and science education community are concerned about a perceived anti-science sentiment in the public.

Any problem of anti-science attitudes is worse if it exists among teachers, for it is the teachers of school-level science who influence the developing attitudes of children. However, our interests are prompted by a worldview theory Cobern, , that suggests that important ideas are not held in isolation but are related to a network of various ideas that are deemed to be of importance.

We focus on the opinions of pre-service elementary teachers because of the pivotal role they have in fostering student attitudes toward science at an early age. Moreover, elementary teachers are an interesting group because, although they are not science majors or even majors in science-related disciplines, the program of study for elemen- tary teachers involves the significant study of science.

Science, Modernization, and Religion in Turkey Modern science is uniquely Western despite the fact that Islamic science was the most advanced science in the world from roughly the eighth to the thirteenth century. In that early period of Islamic Civilization, science was relatively free from religious and political censors in Islamic countries.

The West eventually flooded the world market with goods based on the latest tech- nology and made science a world-wide culture. As a result, non-Western cultures are unavoidably influenced by science Haidar, State laws, education policies, and school programs have become scientific, democratic, and secular.

To catch up with the developments in the West, many Western science education programs were adopted. Turkey is an emerging modern state and industrialization is still developing as compared with the USA.

Prior to the s, there were few modern secular universities and no private media. In the s, there were 19 Turkish universities primarily located in big cities only YOK, Today, all cities have their own universities 85 state and 30 private YOK, and scientific studies are much more common. Since the s, Turkey has become a more open and capitalistic society. The labor force employed in agriculture dropped to There are significant cultural issues pertaining to the public valuation of science.

For example, in her study involv- ing highly educated, non-science majors, Tobias , found students concluding that scientists do not ask interesting questions because science as they learned it was never placed within the broader realm of culture.

Or consider the Eurobarometer finding Gaskell, that in several European countries more knowledge in science was not reflected in an increased interest and approval of science. To the contrary, there were data suggesting that some people who knew more about science were actually troubled by what they knew of science.

Moreover, Bloom , p. Rather, it is worth making the more general point that the community of scientists really does have a legitimate claim to trustworthiness: scientific inquiry involves procedures, such as experiments and open debate. The TSSI is composed of items based on either objections to or defenses of science.

The items are grouped into nine categories described in Table 1. These categories are not intended to represent an authoritative scientific perspective2 but a scientific perspective commonly found in both the popular media and the popular literature of science and science education in the USA.

Is this instrument appropriate for use in Turkey? We think that it is. Turkey does not have the presence of media at levels comparable to North America and Europe and thus there is not a public media image of science to the extent that one finds in North America and Europe.

Table 1 provides a brief comment on the situation in the Turkish media and schools with respect to the TSSI categories. Our research question is thus about the differences and similarities between American and Turkish responses to the TSSI categories. Our subjects are pre- service elementary teachers. Some may believe that science conflicts with important personal beliefs they hold about other areas of life such as religion and art.

Hence, it is important to know how those studying to be elementary teachers i. They compared their Turkish translation with the first translation. Having considered the two transla- tions, the teachers of English recommended that two items from the science, race, and gender category be adjusted so as to better fit the Turkish culture see Table 2. Levitt, Category Category description TSSI categories and Turkey 7 Science and beauty Scientists are often passionate about their work but the Science and aesthetics is not an issue that has aesthetics work of science best proceeds on the basis of objective appeared in the Turkish media or in the reason and empiricism.

There is a beauty to science. Every citizen should have attained at should be taught at all levels of schooling least a minimal level of science literacy AAAS, Valuing Science 7 Table 2. They approved the Turkish translation. To assess statistical reliability, the item TSSI-Tr was administered to senior-level pre-service teachers.

Overall, the Cronbach alpha values of the nine categories ranged between 0. The left-hand column has the English items as used by Cobern and Loving , with the Turkish translations given in the right-hand column.

Table 3. Cobern reverse. As noted above, Table 1 is not to be taken as an authoritative scientific worldview but as a commonly presented image Model of science in the scientific and science education literature. Some of the students declined to participate and a few others completed only part of the instrument. Of the surveys distributed, we received fully completed surveys. The fourth-year students were chosen so as to match with the data available from American students, that is, upper-level students who have already completed their science requirements.

The American data had been collected by Cobern and Loving between and The statistical analysis is presented in Table 5. The category profiles for the Turkish and the American subjects are shown in Figure 1, in which the category means are ranked by the Turkish data.

The statis- tical results show that, in five of the nine categories, there is a significant differ- ence in the category mean between the Turkish and the American subjects. The visual impression from Figure 1 is one of similarity, that is, the Turkish and the American subjects appear to have similar profiles. On the whole, both the Turkish and the American subjects have a high regard for science but not a complete embrace.

Our discussion on the categories begins with the highest-ranking Turkish category. Valuing Science 13 Table 5. Those Categories highlighted in bold show significant differences in Turkish and American opinions. Figure 1. Comparative valuations of science between Turkey and the USA The Turkish embrace of the Model was highest for the category of science and the economy, with a mean of 4.

Turkey established a free market econ- omy in and since that time, the Turkish media has regularly reported on the economy and the role of science for economic development.

The media reports are much the same as one finds in the USA. Hence, the results in this category confirm what one might expect to be true in both Turkey and the USA. Science and Public Health The Turkish subjects also strongly affirmed the Model regarding science and public health, with a mean value of 4. It is this category in which the American subjects most strongly embraced the Model.

It is not surprising that the American subjects have such a high regard for science and public health given the wide media coverage of health issues and scientific findings in support of good health.

Turkey as an emerging modern state simply does not have a compara- ble scientific—medical complex and related issues are not found in the Turkish media at the level found in the USA. This finding stands in stark contrast to the American mean for this category of only 2.

The Turkish result is a surprise, given the deep religious roots in Turkey and also the contrast of the Turkish mean on epistemology, with the much lower mean on science and religion discussed below. However, this result may be a consequence of the strictly secular educational system in Turkey, which is more strongly secular than the American educational system and which prizes scientific and technological knowledge very highly.

It is their second-highest-ranking category. Neither the lower Turkish mean nor the difference with the American data is surprising.

Although environmental awareness is growing in Turkey, it has not reached the North American or European proportions. Science and Public Policy This is the second category in which the American and the Turkish subjects differ considerably the difference is statistically significant.

Perhaps, due to issues such as embryonic stem cell research that are often addressed in the American media, Americans, more so than Turkish people, appear to think that scientific research needs public regulation. Science is taught at all grades in the Turkish school system and there are exams at the elementary and secondary levels that must be passed. Why the Turkish averages in this category are lower than their American counterparts is a mystery at this point.

The subjects seem not to think that science detracts from aesthetics, but nor do they think that science is clearly more important than aesthetics. The Turkish and the American subjects appear to think that both science and aesthetics are important. Both groups are some- what ambiguous toward the Model, suggesting that neither group considers the scien- tific community as open as indicated by the Model.

The ambiguity of both groups likely reflects the social history in both countries: male domination in both societies and domination by a racial the USA or ethnic Turkey group in both societies. This is the part of the Model that is most objectionable to both groups.

Although Turkey is an emerging modern technological society, and indeed is officially a secular society, it still remains a society under the strong influence of Islam. It is not surprising then that the Turkish pre-service teachers reject the Model supposition that science is more important than religion. Discussion The Turkish and the American responses to the Model are shown in Table 6, and as with Figure 1, the visual impression is one of Turkish—American similarity and yet there are differences.

Cobern Table 6. Summary of Turkish and American responses to the model Reject Ambiguous Affirm Science and religion Science, race, and gender Science and the economy Science and beauty Science and public health Science and the environment Science for all USA: science and public policy Turkey: science and public policy USA: epistemology Turkey: epistemology indicate support for science education and value scientific contributions to the econ- omy, public health, and the environment.

However, they are not completely convinced of the race and gender neutrality of science. Yet, there are differences between the Turkish and the American subjects, and these differences may reflect the difference between an emerging modern society and a well-established modern society. First, science education has a longer history in American schools, which may be reflected in their stronger commitment to science education for all.

Findings similar to the Turkish attitudes were found by Haidar , who studied other Islamic societies. Second, there are long running discussions in America regarding the role of science in the protection of the environment and public health, more so than in Turkey.

Science is especially visible in the American health system. However, expe- rience with science has perhaps bred caution against over-expectations, hence the weaker American views on the epistemology of science and stronger views on the need for the regulation of scientific research.

In contrast, less experience with science in the public domain has led to a greater enthusiasm regarding science, as reflected in the stronger Turkish positions on the epistemology of science and fewer concerns about scientific research that would lead to regulation. Such Turkish opinions are not unusual in the Middle East; for example, Karabenick and Moosa simi- larly found that the views of Omani students on the epistemological value of science are higher than those of American students.

Of course, we need to be careful about suggesting how the people of Turkey and America might compare with Europeans. Such data are not yet available. Nonethe- less, there are hints at interesting questions. Americans are bothered little by this application of science to the agricultural industry. Which way will the Turkish people turn? Evolution- ary ideas pose little concern for Europeans, whereas these ideas are often rejected by many Americans Miller, , What about Turkey?

Will evolution become as broadly accepted as in Europe or not? These are questions that will keep Turkish science education researchers occupied for some time to come. It is technologically more devel- oped, with a more educated population and a government that is officially secular. Turkey is becoming a more Westernized society, appearing in many ways similar to the USA and also to Europe.

As a matter of government policy, science and technology are broadly supported in the Turkish school systems i. Indeed, the TSSI-Tr shows that the Turkish subjects value the importance of science with regard to national economy, public health, and the environment nearly as much as the American subjects.

ILGM is based in the Netherlands, but their distribution center in California allows for much faster and more reliable shipping. Although it was decided Mg Capsule Cbd Oil cloud cbd oil review in the end, everyone did not follow Meihua s plan completely. Left Continue shopping Your Order. You have no items in your cart. Left Back. Here are the 10 things that make SFG different from traditional row gardening: Layout. Arrange your garden in squares, not rows.

Companion plants can help each other grow bigger and tastier! Build boxes to hold a new soil mix above ground. Your existing soil doesn’t matter! It makes it easier to walk and sit around the boxes, especially when your plants get really big and spill out of the boxes a little.

Make a permanent square foot grid for the top of each box. A MUST! This is how the soil stays so fluffy and airy for the roots stay happy. Tend your garden from the aisles. Plant a different flower, vegetable, or herb crop in each square foot, using 1, 4, 9, or 16 plants per square foot. Using this system, you can cram a lot of garden into a small space and still get excellent yields. All rights reserved.

Erosion and sedimentation control on roads and construction sites in the Federated States of Micronesia. We felt that we could best tailor this report to Climate change in the federated states of Micronesia : Food and water security, climate risk management, and adaptive strategies. This is a report of findings following research and a three-week field assessment April of the Federated States of Micronesia FSM in response to nation-wide marine inundation by extreme tides December , September , December This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the Federated States of Micronesia , a sovereign nation and U.

Atoll-scale patterns in coral reef community structure: Human signatures on Ulithi Atoll, Micronesia. The dynamic relationship between reefs and the people who utilize them at a subsistence level is poorly understood. This paper characterizes atoll-scale patterns in shallow coral reef habitat and fish community structure, and correlates these with environmental characteristics and anthropogenic factors, critical to conservation efforts for the reefs and the people who depend on them.

Hierarchical clustering analyses by site for benthic composition and fish community resulted in the same 3 major clusters: cluster 1-oceanic close proximity to deep water and uninhabited low human impact ; cluster 2-oceanic and inhabited high human impact ; and cluster 3-lagoonal facing the inside of the lagoon and inhabited highest human impact. Distance from village, reef exposure to deep water and human population size had the greatest effect in predicting the fish and benthic community structure.

Our study demonstrates a strong association between benthic and fish community structure and human use across the Ulithi Atoll Yap State , Federated States of Micronesia and confirms a pattern observed by local people that an ‘opportunistic’ scleractinian coral Montipora sp. Our findings suggest that small human populations subsistence fishing can nevertheless have considerable ecological impacts on reefs due, in part, to changes in fishing practices rather than overfishing per se, as well as larger global trends.

Findings from this work can assist in building local capacity to manage reef resources across an atoll-wide scale, and illustrates the importance of anthropogenic impact even in small communities. Master thesis development management- University of Agder, This modified, participatory action research study investigates the potential for 3D printing for development 3DP4D on the remote Pacific island of Pohnpei The Federated States of Micronesia , specifically in an attempt to visualize opportunities for the technology to affect the state and national trade imbalance.

The study examines import statistics and coordinates with government leaders and business manage Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. Full Text Available The dynamic relationship between reefs and the people who utilize them at a subsistence level is poorly understood.

Hierarchical clustering analyses by site for benthic composition and fish community resulted in the same 3 major clusters: cluster 1-oceanic close proximity to deep water and uninhabited low human impact; cluster 2-oceanic and inhabited high human impact; and cluster 3-lagoonal facing the inside of the lagoon and inhabited highest human impact. Micronesian agroforestry: evidence from the past, implications for the future. Traditional agroforest systems exist throughout Micronesia. The system found on one Micronesian group of islands, Yap , is described and evaluated in ecological terms.

Implications for future development of agriculture in Micronesia are discussed and some specific recommendations are given. Investigating an outbreak of acute fever in Chuuk, Federated States of Micronesia. The cause of AFI was suspected to be dengue; however, by the end of October, only one of 39 samples was positive for dengue. The objective of the investigation was to establish the cause of the outbreak. Methods: A line list was created and data analysed by time, place, person and clinical features.

Reported symptoms were compared with the published symptoms of several diagnoses and laboratory testing undertaken. The clinical features of the cases were not typical for dengue but suggestive of respiratory illness. Nasopharyngeal swabs were subsequently collected and found to be positive for influenza.

Public health measures were undertaken and the AFI returned to expected levels. Discussion: Clinical diagnosis of acute febrile illness AFI can often be difficult and misleading. This can mean that opportunities for preventive measures early on in an outbreak are missed. In any outbreak, descriptive epidemiological analyses are valuable in helping to ascertain the cause of the outbreak. Research Series. The survey raises awareness of the…. Research Digest. Volume 2. Getting to Know Education in the Pacific Region.

This document begins by providing a map of the REL Pacific region overlaid on a map of…. Our findings link energy sensing to the Hippo- YAP pathway and suggest that YAP may integrate spatial contact inhibition, mechanical, and metabolic signals to control cellular proliferation and survival.

Actin cytoskeletal damage induces inactivation of the oncoprotein YAP Yes-associated protein. We also found that PKA activity is involved in all contexts previously reported to trigger the LATS— YAP pathway, including actin cytoskeletal damage, G-protein-coupled receptor activation, and engagement of the Hippo pathway.

Inhibition of PKA and overexpression of YAP cooperate to transform normal cells and amplify neural progenitor pools in developing chick embryos. Our study thus incorporates PKA as novel component of the Hippo pathway. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These maps show for the first time an accurate georeferenced mosaic of the Marshall Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia , the Republic of Palau and their Small-bodied humans from Palau, Micronesia.

First, individuals from the older time horizons are small in body size even relative to “pygmoid” populations from Southeast Asia and Indonesia, and thus may represent a marked case of human insular dwarfism. Second, while possessing a number of derived features that align them with Homo sapiens, the human remains from Palau also exhibit several skeletal traits that are considered to be primitive for the genus Homo. The endemic plants of Micronesia : a geographical checklist and commentary.

Full Text Available The Micronesia -Polynesia bioregion is recognized as a global biodiversity hotspot. However, until now estimates regarding the number of endemic plant species for the region were not supported by any comprehensive published work for the region.

A checklist of all endemic plant species for Micronesia is presented here with their corresponding geographical limits within the region. A summary of previous work and estimates is also provided noting the degree of taxonomic progress in the past several decades.

A total of vascular plant species are considered endemic to Micronesia , most of them being restricted to the Caroline Islands with a large percentage restricted to Palau. The checklist includes seven new combinations, one new name, and two unverified names that require additional study to verify endemic status. Overviews of each respective botanical family represented in the list are given including additional information on the Micronesian taxa. Recommendations for future work and potential projects are alluded to throughout the text highlighting major data gaps and very poorly known taxa.

The following new combinations and names are made: Cyclosorus carolinensis Hosokawa Lorence, comb. Wagner Lorence, comb. Lucas comb. Characterization of the coccoid cyanobacterium Myxosarcina sp.

Mangrove forests are known to be inhabited by diverse symbiotic cyanobacterial communities that are capable of N2 fixation. To investigate its biodiversity, root sediments were collected from a mangrove forest in Chuuk State , Federated States of Micronesia FSM , and an entangled yellow-brown coccoid cyanobacterium was isolated. The isolated cyanobacterium was reproduced by multiple fission and eventually produced baeocytes.

Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the isolate was most similar to the genera Myxosarcina and Chroococcidiopsis in the order Pleurocapsales. Compositions of protein, lipid and carbohydrate in the cyanobacterial cells were estimated to be Interestingly, total fatty acids in the isolate were mainly composed of saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids, whereas polyunsaturated fatty acids were not detected. Based on the molecular and biochemical characteristics, the isolate was finally classified in the genus Myxosarcina, and designated as Myxosarcina sp.

These results will contribute to better understanding of cyanobacterial biodiversity in the mangrove forest in FSM as well as the genus Myxosarcina, and also will allow further exploitation of its biotechnological potential on the basis of its cellular characteristics. YAP regulates neuronal differentiation through Sonic hedgehog signaling pathway.

Tight regulation of cell numbers by controlling cell proliferation and apoptosis is important during development. Recently, the Hippo pathway has been shown to regulate tissue growth and organ size in Drosophila.

In mammalian cells, it also affects cell proliferation and differentiation in various tissues, including the nervous system. Interplay of several signaling cascades, such as Notch, Wnt, and Sonic Hedgehog Shh pathways, control cell proliferation during neuronal differentiation. However, it remains unclear whether the Hippo pathway coordinates with other signaling cascades in regulating neuronal differentiation. Here, we used P19 cells, a mouse embryonic carcinoma cell line, as a model to study roles of YAP , a core component of the Hippo pathway, in neuronal differentiation.

P19 cells can be induced to differentiate into neurons by expressing a neural bHLH transcription factor gene Ascl1. Our results showed that YAP promoted cell proliferation and inhibited neuronal differentiation. Expression of Yap activated Shh but not Wnt or Notch signaling activity during neuronal differentiation.

Furthermore, expression of Yap increased the expression of Patched homolog 1 Ptch1 , a downstream target of the Shh signaling. Knockdown of Gli2, a transcription factor of the Shh pathway, promoted neuronal differentiation even when Yap was over-expressed. We further demonstrated that over-expression of Yap inhibited neuronal differentiation in primary mouse cortical progenitors and Gli2 knockdown rescued the differentiation defect in Yap over-expressing cells.

In conclusion, our study reveals that Shh signaling acts downstream of YAP in regulating neuronal differentiation. Cancer, reproductive abnormalities, and diabetes in Micronesia : the effect of nuclear testing. Many suggest that cancer and other diseases in Micronesia have been caused by nuclear testing in the Pacific.

The year commemoration of the March 1, Bravo thermonuclear test has rekindled interest in this area. This paper explores the documentation for, and the plausibility of, claims for disease causation by nuclear testing. Given the sheer volume of testing that the US conducted in the Pacific, it appears plausible that excess cancer would have occurred in areas of Micronesia other than the Marshall Islands.

An excess of birth abnormalities in the Marshall Islands has been documented. While diabetes is not a radiogenic disease, and other cancers are generally less radiogenic than leukemia or thyroid cancer, the social and cultural effects of nuclear testing specifically, and the strategic uses to which Micronesia has been put generally, have had roles in the social production of disease.

Yap 1 is dispensable for self-renewal but required for proper differentiation of mouse embryonic stem ES cells. Yap 1 is a transcriptional co-activator of the Hippo pathway. The importance of Yap 1 in early cell fate decision during embryogenesis has been well established, though its role in embryonic stem ES cells remains elusive.

Here, we report that Yap 1 plays crucial roles in normal differentiation rather than self-renewal of ES cells. Yap 1-depleted ES cells maintain undifferentiated state with a typical colony morphology as well as robust alkaline phosphatase activity.

These cells also retain comparable levels of the core pluripotent factors, such as Pou5f1 and Sox2, to the levels in wild-type ES cells without significant alteration of lineage-specific marker genes. Conversely, overexpression of Yap 1 in ES cells promotes nuclear translocation of Yap 1, resulting in disruption of self-renewal and triggering differentiation by up-regulating lineage-specific genes.

Moreover, Yap 1-deficient ES cells show impaired induction of lineage markers during differentiation. Collectively, our data demonstrate that Yap 1 is a required factor for proper differentiation of mouse ES cells, while remaining dispensable for self-renewal. Mass poisoning after consumption of a hawksbill turtle, Federated States of Micronesia , Full Text Available Background: Marine turtles of all species are capable of being toxic. On 17 October , health authorities in the Federated States of Micronesia were notified of the sudden death of three children and the sickening of approximately 20 other people on Murilo Atoll in Chuuk State.

The illnesses were suspected to be the result of mass consumption of a hawksbill turtle Eretmochelys imbricata. An investigation team was assembled to confirm the cause of the outbreak, describe the epidemiology of cases and provide recommendations for control.

Methods: We conducted chart reviews, interviewed key informants, collected samples for laboratory analysis, performed environmental investigations and conducted a cohort study. The relative risk for developing illness after consuming the turtle was Environmental and epidemiological investigations revealed no alternative explanation for the mass illness.

Laboratory testing failed to identify a causative agent. Conclusion: We concluded that turtle poisoning also called chelonitoxism was the cause of the outbreak on Murilo. The range of illness described in this investigation is consistent with previously reported cases of chelonitoxism. This devastating incident highlights the dangers, particularly to children, of consuming turtle meat. Future incidents are certain to occur unless action is taken to alter turtle-eating behaviour in coastal communities throughout the world.

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic, fish, and macroinvertebrate census data are collected from sites around Micronesia as part of the ongoing Micronesia Challenge. Information on the program However, mechanisms that regulate the localization of p73 have not been fully clarified. The Yes-associated protein YAP is a transcriptional coactivator. As a transcriptional coactivator, YAP needs to bind transcription factors to stimulate gene expression.

In this study, we focused on YAP ‘s regulation of the localization of p When expressed alone, YFP-p73 was distributed throughout the cell. We found that YAP can influence the subcellular distribution of p Altogether, coexpression with YAP affected the subcellular distribution of the p73 protein.

Our studies attribute a central role to YAP in regulating p73 accumulation and YAP , at least in part, might promote the nuclear import of p Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, evolved from the gastrointestinal pathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Both species have numerous type Va autotransporters, most of which appear to be highly conserved.

By comparing yap K and yap J to three homologous genes in Y. By extending this analysis to include homologous sequences from numerous Y. Since autotransporters are important for virulence in many bacterial pathogens, including Y. Using established mouse models of Y. In addition, a mutant lacking both of these genes exhibits an additive attenuation, suggesting nonredundant roles for yap J and yap K in systemic Y.

However, the deletion of the homologous genes in Y. Response to arsenic stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is orchestrated by the regulatory protein Yap 8, which mediates transcriptional activation of ACR2 and ACR3.

This study contributes to the state of art knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying yeast stress response to arsenate as it provides the genetic and biochemical evidences that Yap 8, through cysteine residues , , and , is the sensor of presence of arsenate in the cytosol. Moreover, it is here reported for the first time the essential role of the Mediator complex in the transcriptional activation of ACR2 by Yap 8. Based on our data, we propose an order-of-function map to recapitulate the sequence of events taking place in cells injured with arsenate.

The Mediator complex then transfers the regulatory signals conveyed by Yap 8 to the core transcriptional machinery, which culminates with TBP occupancy, ACR2 upregulation and cell adaptation to arsenate stress. Published by Elsevier B. Proceedings of the workshop on research methodologies and applications for Pacific Island agroforestry; July , ; Kolonia, Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia. Includes 19 papers presented at the workshop, covering such topics as sampling techniques and statistical considerations, indigenous agricultural and agroforestry systems, crop testing and evaluation, and agroforestry practices in the Pacific Islands, including Micronesia , Northern Marianas Islands, Palau, and American Samoa.

Overexpression of the transcription factor Yap 1 modifies intracellular redox conditions and enhances recombinant protein secretion. Full Text Available Oxidative folding of secretory proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum ER is a redox active process, which also impacts the redox conditions in the cytosol. As the transcription factor Yap 1 is involved in the transcriptional response to oxidative stress, we investigate its role upon the production of secretory proteins, using the yeast Pichia pastoris as model, and report a novel important role of Yap 1 during oxidative protein folding.

Yap 1 is needed for the detoxification of reactive oxygen species ROS caused by increased oxidative protein folding. Constitutive co-overexpression of Pp YAP 1 leads to increased levels of secreted recombinant protein, while a lowered Yap 1 function leads to accumulation of ROS and strong flocculation. Transcriptional analysis revealed that more than genes were affected by overexpression of YAP 1, in particular genes coding for antioxidant enzymes or involved in oxidation-reduction processes.

By monitoring intracellular redox conditions within the cytosol and the ER using redox-sensitive roGFP1 variants, we could show that overexpression of YAP 1 restores cellular redox conditions of protein-secreting P. These alterations are also reflected by increased levels of oxidized intracellular glutathione GSSG in the YAP 1 co-overexpressing strain. Taken together, these data indicate a strong impact of intracellular redox balance on the secretion of recombinant proteins without affecting protein folding per se.

Re-establishing suitable redox conditions by tuning the antioxidant capacity of the cell reduces metabolic load and cell stress caused by high oxidative protein folding load, thereby increasing the secretion capacity. Impact of routine hepatitis B immunization on the prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus infection in the marshall islands and the federated States of micronesia.

To evaluate the impact of routine hepatitis B HB vaccination on the prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus HBV infection among children in Pacific Island countries where HBV infection was highly endemic, we conducted HB serosurveys during to among women of childbearing age born before implementation of HB vaccination and among children born after its implementation. Serum specimens were collected from children aged 2 to 6 years and their mothers in Chuuk, Federated States of Micronesia in , children aged 2 to 9 years and their mothers in Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia in , and 5- to 9-year-old children and prenatal clinic patients in in Republic of the Marshall Islands RMI.

HB vaccination coverage was determined from health department vaccination registries. Chronic HBV infection prevalence among children was 2. Chronic HBV infection prevalence among women was 9. Hepatitis B vaccination has resulted in a substantial decline in chronic infection in children in the Pacific Islands.

HB vaccine effectiveness is high in this region, despite challenges in providing HB vaccine at birth and completing vaccination series on schedule. Population pharmacokinetics and target attainment were modeled. Cmax correlated linearly with per-weight dosage. Neither Cmax nor half-life was associated with gender, age, body mass index, concurrent medications or predose meals.

YAP functions as a rheostat in maintaining metabolic specialization, differentiation, and quiescence within the hepatocyte compartment. Thus, our work reveals Hippo signaling as a key regulator of the positional identity of hepatocytes, supports targeting of YAP using siRNA-LNPs as a paradigm of differentiation-based therapy, and identifies an HCC subtype that is potentially responsive to this approach.

The vertebrate body shape is formed by the specific sizes and shapes of its resident tissues and organs, whose alignments are essential for proper functioning. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying three-dimensional 3D organ formation and homeostasis are not fully clear. Yes-associated protein YAP is a transcriptional co-activator that is involved in organ size control and tumorigenesis.

Recently, we reported that YAP is essential for proper 3D body shape through regulation of cell tension by using a unique medaka fish mutant, hirame hir. Furthermore, in a mosaic mouse model, active YAP -expressing damaged hepatocytes undergo apoptosis and are eliminated from the liver.

Thus, YAP functions in quantitative and quality control in organogenesis. In this review, we describe the various roles of YAP in vertebrates, including in the initiation of liver cancer.

YAP expression in normal and neoplastic breast tissue: an immunohistochemical study. Yes-associated protein YAP is a transcriptional factor involved in normal cell proliferation, apoptosis and carcinogenesis; however, its contribution to breast cancer BC is still controversial.

We undertook this study to compare the expression of YAP by immunohistochemistry IHC in normal breast tissue of women without breast cancer BC controls , non-neoplastic breast tissue in women with cancer internal controls and in four different subtypes of invasive ductal carcinoma.

There was a significant difference in nuclear expression between the ductal BC subtypes. YAP showed decreased expression in tumor cells compared with normal breast tissue. Published by Elsevier Inc. Yap is required for ependymal integrity and is suppressed in LPA-induced hydrocephalus. Timely generation and normal maturation of ependymal cells along the aqueduct are critical for preventing physical blockage between the third and fourth ventricles and the development of fetal non-communicating hydrocephalus.

Our study identifies Yap , the downstream effector of the evolutionarily conserved Hippo pathway, as a central regulator for generating developmentally controlled ependymal cells along the ventricular lining of the aqueduct. Yap function is necessary for proper proliferation of progenitors and apical attachment of ependymal precursor cells.

Importantly, an injury signal initiated by lysophosphatidic acid LPA , an upstream regulator of Yap that can cause fetal haemorrhagic hydrocephalus, deregulates Yap in the developing aqueduct. LPA exposure leads to the loss of N-cadherin concentrations at the apical endfeet, which can be partially restored by forced Yap expression and more efficiently by phosphomimetic Yap.

These results reveal a novel function of Yap in retaining tissue junctions during normal development and after fetal brain injury. Few specimens of water mites have been collected from Pacific Island streams, especially higher elevation, head water streams.

YAP is a mechanosensitive transcriptional activator with a critical role in cancer, regeneration, and organ size control. Here, we show that force applied to the nucleus directly drives YAP nuclear translocation by decreasing the mechanical restriction of nuclear pores to molecular transport. Exposure to a stiff environment leads cells to establish a mechanical connection between the nucleus and the cytoskeleton, allowing forces exerted through focal adhesions to reach the nucleus.

Force transmission then leads to nuclear flattening, which stretches nuclear pores, reduces their mechanical resistance to molecular transport, and increases YAP nuclear import. The restriction to transport is further regulated by the mechanical stability of the transported protein, which determines both active nuclear transport of YAP and passive transport of small proteins. Our results unveil a mechanosensing mechanism mediated directly by nuclear pores, demonstrated for YAP but with potential general applicability in transcriptional regulation.

Normal hematopoietic stem cell function in mice with enforced expression of the Hippo signaling effector YAP 1. Full Text Available The Hippo pathway has recently been implicated in the regulation of organ size and stem cells in multiple tissues. The transcriptional cofactor yes-associated protein 1 Yap 1 is the most downstream effector of Hippo signaling and is functionally repressed by the upstream components of the pathway.

Overexpression of YAP 1 stimulates proliferation of stem and progenitor cells in many tissues, consistent with inhibition of Hippo signaling. To study the role of Hippo signaling in hematopoietic stem cells HSCs, we created a transgenic model with inducible YAP 1 expression exclusively within the hematopoietic system.

Following 3 months induction, examination of blood and bone marrow in the induced mice revealed no changes in the distribution of the hematopoietic lineages compared to control mice. Moreover, the progenitor cell compartment was unaltered as determined by colony forming assays and immunophenotyping.

To address whether YAP 1 affects the quantity and function of HSCs we performed competitive transplantation experiments. We show that ectopic YAP 1 expression does not influence HSC function neither during steady state nor in situations of hematopoietic stress.

This is in sharp contrast to effects seen on stem- and progenitor cells in other organs and suggests highly tissue specific functions of the Hippo pathway in regulation of stem cells.

Rhabdomyosarcoma RMS , a cancer characterized by skeletal muscle features, is the most common soft-tissue sarcoma of childhood. While low- and intermediate-risk groups have seen improved outcomes, high-risk patients still face a 5-year survival rate of statistic that has not changed in over 40 years. Understanding the biologic underpinnings of RMS is critical. Here, the cross-talk between these pathways and the impact on eRMS tumorigenesis is reported. Using human eRMS cells grown as three-dimensional 3D rhabdospheres, which enriches in stem cells, it was found that Notch signaling transcriptionally upregulates YAP 1 gene expression and YAP activity.

Silencing this circuit for therapeutic purposes may be challenging, because the inhibition of one node e. Instead, dual inhibition of Notch and YAP is necessary. Implications: This study identifies a novel oncogenic signaling circuit driving eRMS stemness and tumorigenesis, and provides evidence and rationale for combination therapies co-targeting Notch and YAP.

Mol Cancer Res; 15 12 ; Nuclear localization of the transcriptional coactivator YAP is associated with invasive lobular breast cancer. Yes Associated Protein YAP has been implicated in the control of organ size by regulating cell proliferation and survival.

YAP is a transcriptional coactivator that controls cellular responses through interaction with TEAD transcription factors in the nucleus, while its transcriptional functions are inhibited by phosphorylation-dependent translocation to the cytosol. YAP overexpression has been associated with different types of cancer, such as lung, skin, prostate, ovary and liver cancer.

Recently, YAP was linked to E-cadherin-dependent regulation of contact inhibition in breast cancer cells. In this study we examined YAP protein expression and cellular localization in cases of human invasive breast cancer by immunohistochemistry and related its expression to clinicopathological features and E-cadherin expression. Since our data indicate that nuclear YAP localization is more common in breast cancers lacking functional adherens junctions, it suggests that YAP -mediated transcription may be involved in the development and progression of invasive lobular breast cancer.

The central dogma of gene expression is that DNA is transcribed into messenger RNAs, which in turn serve as the template for protein synthesis. Recently, it has been reported that mRNAs display regulatory roles that rely on their ability to compete for microRNA binding, independent of their protein-coding function.

However, the regulatory mechanism of mRNAs remains poorly understood. Our finding provides new insights into the mechanism of mRNAs in regulatory function. Mammalian brain development is regulated by multiple signaling pathways controlling cell proliferation, migration and differentiation.

Introduction of retroviral vectors expressing YAP or TAZ into the mouse embryonic brain induced cell localization in the ventricular zone VZ , which is the embryonic neural stem cell niche. These effects appear to be TEA domain family transcription factor Tead —dependent; a Tead binding-defective YAP mutant lost the ability to promote neural stem cell characteristics.

Yes-associated protein homolog, YAP -1, is involved in the thermotolerance and aging in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Although the core components of the Hippo pathway are well conserved in metazoans, it has been discussed that Caenorhabditis elegans lacks YAP ortholog, we found that F13E6. We designated this gene as yap YAP -1 is widely expressed in various cells such as epithelial cells, muscles, hypodermal cells, gonadal sheath cells, spermatheca, and hypodermal cells. YAP -1 is distributed in cytoplasm and nuclei.

YAP -1 overexpression is beneficial for thermotolerance, whereas YAP -1 hyperactivity induced by wts-1 and ftt-2 knockdowns is deleterious on thermal response and yap -1 deficiency promotes health aging. In short, YAP -1 partially shares basal characters with mammalian YAP and plays a role in thermal stress response and healthy aging. The aim of this study was to optimize the optical coupling conditions between the crystal and photomultiplier tube PMT to maximize the light-collection efficiency, and to develop a method for rejecting scatter events by applying an equal energy window in each crystal layer.

The light yields of the phoswich detector were estimated by changing the refractive index of the optical coupling material using a DETECT simulation. The accuracy of the DOI measurement on the phoswich detector, using an optical coupling material with the optimal light yield, were evaluated experimentally and compared with the air condition.

The optimal coverage ratio of the inserting material was derived from a DETECT simulation, and its performance was investigated. In the simulation result, optimal refractive index of the optical coupling material was 1. The solid state reaction method was used to prepare YAP powder or ceramic pellets.

DTA method was applied for examination of the phase crystallization in the tested system. X-ray diffraction method XRD was used for characterization of the phase composition. X-ray microanalysis EDS was used to control homogeneity in the small areas. Morphology of the resultant samples are presented on SEM pictures. The results show a significant influence of the starting powders on the homogeneity, purity and temperature of formation of the main phase.

Highly efficient, diode pumped Tm: YAP lasers generating emission in the 1. Laser performance was characterized for maximum average powers up to 20W with various cavity configurations, all using an intra-cavity lens to compensate for thermal lensing in the Tm: YAP crystal.

Q-switched lasers incorportating a Cr:ZnS saturable absorber SA , resonant mechanical mirror scanner, or acousto-optic modulator were characterized. To enable higher average output powers, measurements of the thermal lens were conducted for the Tm: YAP crystal as a function of pump power and were compared to values predicted by a finiteelement- analysis FEA thermal-optical model of the Tm: YAP crystal.

A resonator model is developed to incorporate this calculated thermal lens and its effect on laser performance. This paper will address approaches for improving the performance of Tm: YAP lasers, and means for achieving increased average output powers while maintaining high optical efficiency for both SA and mechanical Q-switching. Light emission efficiency and imaging properties of YAP :Ce granular phosphor screens. Kalivas, N. Phosphor materials are used in medical imaging combined with radiographic film or other photodetectors.

Furthermore, YAP :Ce phosphor has been evaluated in conjunction with radiographic films. The present work reports experimental and theoretical data concerning the light output absolute luminescence efficiency AE of the YAP :Ce screens under irradiation conditions employed in medical X-ray projection imaging i. The resulted surface density of the screens was determined by dividing the phosphor mass deposited on the screen surface with the area of the surface.

The highest experimental efficiency was obtained for the The highest DQE value was found for the


Microsoft office 2013 yap land rma sorunu free


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Microsoft office 2013 yap land rma sorunu free. Osman Titrek’s articles


Из-за чего погибла Меган. Неужели ему предстояло погибнуть по той же причине. Человек неумолимо приближался по крутой дорожке. Вокруг Беккера не было ничего, кроме стен. По сторонам, правда, находились железные ворота, но звать на помощь уже поздно.


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