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Microsoft project standard 2016 wiki free

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The cost of reproducing the work is low enough that additional users may be added at zero or near zero cost — this is referred to as the marginal cost of a product. Copyright creates a monopoly so that the price charged to consumers can be significantly higher than the marginal cost of production.

This allows the author to recoup the cost of making the original work. Copyright thus creates access costs for consumers who value the work more than the marginal cost but less than the initial production cost. Access costs also pose problems for authors who wish to create a derivative work —such as a copy of a software program modified to fix a bug or add a feature, or a remix of a song—but are unable or unwilling to pay the copyright holder for the right to do so.

Being organized as effectively a ” consumers’ cooperative “, open source eliminates some of the access costs of consumers and creators of derivative works by reducing the restrictions of copyright. Basic economic theory predicts that lower costs would lead to higher consumption and also more frequent creation of derivative works. Organizations such as Creative Commons host websites where individuals can file for alternative “licenses”, or levels of restriction, for their works. Others argue that since consumers do not pay for their copies, creators are unable to recoup the initial cost of production and thus have little economic incentive to create in the first place.

By this argument, consumers would lose out because some of the goods they would otherwise purchase would not be available. In practice, content producers can choose whether to adopt a proprietary license and charge for copies, or an open license.

Some goods which require large amounts of professional research and development, such as the pharmaceutical industry which depends largely on patents , not copyright for intellectual property protection are almost exclusively proprietary, although increasingly sophisticated technologies are being developed on open-source principles.

There is evidence that open-source development creates enormous value. RepRap 3D printers can replicate the product for the cost of materials.

Many open source projects have a high economic value. The rank given is based on the activity regarding projects in online discussions, on GitHub, on search activity in search engines and on the influence on the labour market. Alternative arrangements have also been shown to result in good creation outside of the proprietary license model. Examples include: [ citation needed ]. The open-source model is a decentralized software development model that encourages open collaboration , [3] [32] meaning “any system of innovation or production that relies on goal-oriented yet loosely coordinated participants who interact to create a product or service of economic value, which they make available to contributors and noncontributors alike.

The open-source model for software development inspired the use of the term to refer to other forms of open collaboration, such as in Internet forums , [8] mailing lists [33] and online communities. Open collaboration is the principle underlying peer production , mass collaboration , and wikinomics. It also explains some instances of crowdsourcing , collaborative consumption , and open innovation.

Riehle et al. For example, all of the elements — goods of economic value, open access to contribute and consume, interaction and exchange, purposeful yet loosely coordinated work — are present in an open source software project, in Wikipedia, or in a user forum or community.

They can also be present in a commercial website that is based on user-generated content. In all of these instances of open collaboration, anyone can contribute and anyone can freely partake in the fruits of sharing, which are produced by interacting participants who are loosely coordinated. An annual conference dedicated to the research and practice of open collaboration is the International Symposium on Wikis and Open Collaboration OpenSym, formerly WikiSym.

Open source gained hold in part due to the rise of the Internet. An open-source license is a type of license for computer software and other products that allows the source code , blueprint or design to be used, modified or shared with or without modification under defined terms and conditions. Open-source licensed software is mostly available free of charge, though this does not necessarily have to be the case. Licenses which only permit non-commercial redistribution or modification of the source code for personal use only are generally not considered as open-source licenses.

However, open-source licenses may have some restrictions, particularly regarding the expression of respect to the origin of software, such as a requirement to preserve the name of the authors and a copyright statement within the code, or a requirement to redistribute the licensed software only under the same license as in a copyleft license.

Social and political views have been affected by the growth of the concept of open source. Advocates in one field often support the expansion of open source in other fields. But Eric Raymond and other founders of the open-source movement have sometimes publicly argued against speculation about applications outside software, saying that strong arguments for software openness should not be weakened by overreaching into areas where the story may be less compelling.

The broader impact of the open-source movement, and the extent of its role in the development of new information sharing procedures, remain to be seen. The open-source movement has inspired increased transparency and liberty in biotechnology research, for example CAMBIA [42] Even the research methodologies themselves can benefit from the application of open-source principles.

Open-source software is software which source code is published and made available to the public, enabling anyone to copy, modify and redistribute the source code without paying royalties or fees. These communities are composed of individual programmers as well as large companies. Some of the individual programmers who start an open-source project may end up establishing companies offering products or services incorporating open-source programs.

Open-source hardware is hardware which initial specification, usually in a software format, is published and made available to the public, enabling anyone to copy, modify and redistribute the hardware and source code without paying royalties or fees.

Open-source hardware evolves through community cooperation. Examples of open-source hardware initiatives are:. Some publishers of open-access journals have argued that data from food science and gastronomy studies should be freely available to aid reproducibility. An open-source robot is a robot whose blueprints, schematics, or source code are released under an open-source model. For example, “being free to speak” is not the same as “free beer”. Generally, open source refers to a computer program in which the source code is available to the general public for use for any including commercial purpose, or modification from its original design.

Open-source code is meant to be a collaborative effort, where programmers improve upon the source code and share the changes within the community.

The rise of open-source culture in the 20th century resulted from a growing tension between creative practices that involve require access to content that is often copyrighted , and restrictive intellectual property laws and policies governing access to copyrighted content. The two main ways in which intellectual property laws became more restrictive in the 20th century were extensions to the term of copyright particularly in the United States and penalties, such as those articulated in the Digital Millennium Copyright Act DMCA , placed on attempts to circumvent anti-piracy technologies.

Although artistic appropriation is often permitted under fair-use doctrines, the complexity and ambiguity of these doctrines creates an atmosphere of uncertainty among cultural practitioners. Also, the protective actions of copyright owners create what some call a ” chilling effect ” among cultural practitioners. The idea of an “open-source” culture runs parallel to ” Free Culture ,” but is substantively different.

Free culture is a term derived from the free software movement , and in contrast to that vision of culture, proponents of open-source culture OSC maintain that some intellectual property law needs to exist to protect cultural producers.

Yet they propose a more nuanced position than corporations have traditionally sought. Instead of seeing intellectual property law as an expression of instrumental rules intended to uphold either natural rights or desirable outcomes, an argument for OSC takes into account diverse goods as in “the Good life” and ends.

Sites such as ccMixter offer up free web space for anyone willing to license their work under a Creative Commons license. The resulting cultural product is then available to download free generally accessible to anyone with an Internet connection. Through various technologies such as peer-to-peer networks and blogs , cultural producers can take advantage of vast social networks to distribute their products.

As opposed to traditional media distribution, redistributing digital media on the Internet can be virtually costless. Irish philosopher Richard Kearney has used the term “open-source Hinduism ” to refer to the way historical figures such as Mohandas Gandhi and Swami Vivekananda worked upon this ancient tradition.

Open-source journalism formerly referred to the standard journalistic techniques of news gathering and fact checking, reflecting open-source intelligence , a similar term used in military intelligence circles. Now, open-source journalism commonly refers to forms of innovative publishing of online journalism , rather than the sourcing of news stories by a professional journalist.

In the 25 December issue of TIME magazine this is referred to as user created content and listed alongside more traditional open-source projects such as OpenSolaris and Linux. Weblogs , or blogs, are another significant platform for open-source culture. Blogs consist of periodic, reverse chronologically ordered posts, using a technology that makes webpages easily updatable with no understanding of design, code, or file transfer required.

While corporations, political campaigns and other formal institutions have begun using these tools to distribute information, many blogs are used by individuals for personal expression, political organizing, and socializing. Some, such as LiveJournal or WordPress , utilize open-source software that is open to the public and can be modified by users to fit their own tastes.

Whether the code is open or not, this format represents a nimble tool for people to borrow and re-present culture; whereas traditional websites made the illegal reproduction of culture difficult to regulate, the mutability of blogs makes “open sourcing” even more uncontrollable since it allows a larger portion of the population to replicate material more quickly in the public sphere. Messageboards are another platform for open-source culture. Messageboards also known as discussion boards or forums , are places online where people with similar interests can congregate and post messages for the community to read and respond to.

Messageboards sometimes have moderators who enforce community standards of etiquette such as banning spammers. Other common board features are private messages where users can send messages to one another as well as chat a way to have a real time conversation online and image uploading.

Some messageboards use phpBB , which is a free open-source package. Where blogs are more about individual expression and tend to revolve around their authors, messageboards are about creating a conversation amongst its users where information can be shared freely and quickly.

Messageboards are a way to remove intermediaries from everyday life—for instance, instead of relying on commercials and other forms of advertising, one can ask other users for frank reviews of a product, movie or CD. By removing the cultural middlemen, messageboards help speed the flow of information and exchange of ideas. OpenDocument is an open document file format for saving and exchanging editable office documents such as text documents including memos, reports, and books , spreadsheets , charts, and presentations.

Organizations and individuals that store their data in an open format such as OpenDocument avoid being locked into a single software vendor, leaving them free to switch software if their current vendor goes out of business, raises their prices, changes their software, or changes their licensing terms to something less favorable. Open-source movie production is either an open call system in which a changing crew and cast collaborate in movie production, a system in which the result is made available for re-use by others or in which exclusively open-source products are used in the production.

The movie Elephants Dream is said to be the “world’s first open movie”, [85] created entirely using open-source technology. An open-source documentary film has a production process allowing the open contributions of archival material footage , and other filmic elements, both in unedited and edited form, similar to crowdsourcing.

By doing so, on-line contributors become part of the process of creating the film, helping to influence the editorial and visual material to be used in the documentary, as well as its thematic development.

The first open-source documentary film is the non-profit WBCN and the American Revolution , which went into development in , and will examine the role media played in the cultural, social and political changes from to through the story of radio station WBCN-FM in Boston.

Open Source Cinema is a website to create Basement Tapes, a feature documentary about copyright in the digital age, co-produced by the National Film Board of Canada. It can also refer to a method of film-making where the process of creation is ‘open’ i. Open-IPTV uses the Internet or other means to pool efforts and resources together to create an online community that all contributes to a show. Within the academic community, there is discussion about expanding what could be called the “intellectual commons” analogous to the Creative Commons.

Open-source curricula are instructional resources whose digital source can be freely used, distributed and modified. Another strand to the academic community is in the area of research. Many funded research projects produce software as part of their work. Due to the benefits of sharing software openly in scientific endeavours, [91] there is an increasing interest in making the outputs of research projects available under an open-source license.

JISC also funds a development service called OSS Watch which acts as an advisory service for higher and further education institutions wishing to use, contribute to and develop open-source software.

The principle of sharing pre-dates the open-source movement; for example, the free sharing of information has been institutionalized in the scientific enterprise since at least the 19th century. Open-source principles have always been part of the scientific community.

The sociologist Robert K. Merton described the four basic elements of the community—universalism an international perspective , communalism sharing information , objectivity removing one’s personal views from the scientific inquiry and organized skepticism requirements of proof and review that describe the idealised scientific community.

These principles are, in part, complemented by US law’s focus on protecting expression and method but not the ideas themselves. There is also a tradition of publishing research results to the scientific community instead of keeping all such knowledge proprietary. One of the recent initiatives in scientific publishing has been open access —the idea that research should be published in such a way that it is free and available to the public.

There are currently many open access journals where the information is available free online, however most journals do charge a fee either to users or libraries for access. The Budapest Open Access Initiative is an international effort with the goal of making all research articles available free on the Internet. This policy would provide a free, searchable resource of NIH-funded results to the public and with other international repositories six months after its initial publication.

The NIH’s move is an important one because there is significant amount of public funding in scientific research. Many of the questions have yet to be answered—the balancing of profit vs.

Benjamin Franklin was an early contributor eventually donating all his inventions including the Franklin stove , bifocals , and the lightning rod to the public domain. New NGO communities are starting to use the open-source technology as a tool. The Eclipse platform is openly presenting itself as an Open innovation network. Copyright protection is used in the performing arts and even in athletic activities. Some groups have attempted to remove copyright from such practices. This opera was originally composed and published in by Russian label MC Entertainment as a commercial product, but then the author changed its status to free.

In his blog [98] he said that he decided to open raw files including wav, midi and other used formats to the public in order to support worldwide pirate actions against SOPA and PIPA. Several Internet resources [99] [] [] [] called “” the first open-source musical opera in history. The following are events and applications that have been developed via the open source community , and echo the ideologies of the open source movement.

Open Education Consortium — an organization composed of various colleges that support open source and share some of their material online. This organization, headed by Massachusetts Institute of Technology , was established to aid in the exchange of open source educational materials. Wikipedia — user-generated online encyclopedia with sister projects in academic areas, such as Wikiversity — a community dedicated to the creation and exchange of learning materials [] [ failed verification ].

Project Gutenberg — prior to the existence of Google Scholar Beta, this was the first supplier of electronic books and the very first free library project [] [ failed verification ]. Synthetic Biology – This new technology is potentially important because it promises to enable cheap, lifesaving new drugs as well as helping to yield biofuels that may help to solve our energy problem.

Although synthetic biology has not yet come out of its “lab” stage, it has potential to become industrialized in the near future. In order to industrialize open source science, there are some scientists who are trying to build their own brand of it. The open-access movement is a movement that is similar in ideology to the open source movement. Members of this movement maintain that academic material should be readily available to provide help with “future research, assist in teaching and aid in academic purposes.

The free-culture movement is a movement that seeks to achieve a culture that engages in collective freedom via freedom of expression, free public access to knowledge and information, full demonstration of creativity and innovation in various arenas and promotion of citizen liberties. Creative Commons is an organization that “develops, supports, and stewards legal and technical infrastructure that maximizes digital creativity, sharing, and innovation. Creative Commons provides an infrastructure through a set of copyright licenses and tools that creates a better balance within the realm of “all rights reserved” properties.

The Zeitgeist Movement is an international social movement that advocates a transition into a sustainable “resource-based economy” based on collaboration in which monetary incentives are replaced by commons-based ones with everyone having access to everything from code to products as in “open source everything”.

P2P Foundation is an “international organization focused on studying, researching, documenting and promoting peer to peer practices in a very broad sense”.

Its objectives incorporate those of the open source movement, whose principles are integrated in a larger socio-economic model. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Free access to software, information and materials as a concept. For a common use, see Open-source software , and for other uses, see Open source disambiguation. Not to be confused with Open access. Main article: History of free and open-source software.

Main article: Open-source economics. Further information: Business models for open-source software. Main article: Open-source license. Main article: Free and open-source software. Further information: Open research. Main article: Open-source robotics. Main article: Open-source software. Further information: Open-source software movement.

Main article: Open-source religion. Free and open-source software portal. Meta has related information at: Open-source. Scholia has a topic profile for Open source.

Wikispecies has information related to Open-source. Open Source Org. Archived from the original on 11 June Retrieved 22 January Open source doesn’t just mean access to the source code. Diffingo Solutions Inc. Archived from the original on 28 October Open source software differers from other software because it has a less restrictive license agreement: Instead of using a restrictive license that prevents you from modifying the program or sharing it with friends for example, sharing and modifying open source software is encouraged.

Anyone who wishes to do so may distribute, modify or even create derivative works based on that source code! Organization Science. ISSN S2CID SSRN The cathedral and the bazaar: musings on Linux and Open Source by an accidental revolutionary. ISBN Environment, Development and Sustainability.

ISSN X. Business Standard India — via Business Standard. June Research Policy. In Kotze, P. ACM Press. You can use the Bot Framework Emulator to test bots running locally on your machine or to connect to bots running remotely. The Bot Framework Web Chat is a highly customizable web-based client chat control for Azure Bot Service that provides the ability for users to interact with your bot directly in a web page. The Bot Framework CLI tool replaced the legacy standalone tools used to manage bots and related services.

BF CLI aggregates the collection of cross-platform tools into one cohesive and consistent interface. A machine learning-based service to build natural language experiences. Quickly create enterprise-ready, custom models that continuously improve. QnA Maker is a cloud-based API service that creates a conversational, question-and-answer layer over your data.

With QnA Maker, you can build, train and publish a simple question and answer bot based on FAQ URLs, structured documents, product manuals or editorial content in minutes. Dispatch tool lets you build language models that allow you to dispatch between disparate components such as QnA, LUIS and custom code.

Speech Services convert audio to text, perform speech translation and text-to-speech with the unified Speech services. With the speech services, you can integrate speech into your bot, create custom wake words, and author in multiple languages. Adaptive Cards are an open standard for developers to exchange card content in a common and consistent way, and are used by Bot Framework developers to create great cross-channel conversatational experiences.

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Microsoft project standard 2016 wiki free.Open source

 

This is an overview of software support for the OpenDocument format, an open document file format for saving and exchanging editable office documents.

OpenDocument packages are ordinary zip files. There is an OpenDocument format which is just a single XML file, but most applications use the package format. Thus, any of the vast number of tools for handling zip files and XML data can be used to handle OpenDocument. Nearly all programming languages have libraries built-in or available for processing XML files and zip files. In October , one year before the Microsoft Office suite was released, Microsoft declared that there is not sufficient demand from Microsoft customers for international standard OpenDocument format support and therefore it will not be included in Microsoft Office This statement was repeated also in next months.

This work was started in response to government requests for interoperability with ODF. The goal of project is not to implement ODF direct to Microsoft Office, but only to create plugin and external tools.

Microsoft Office Service Pack 2 was released on 28 April The project, hosted on SourceForge , is an effort by several of Microsoft’s partners to create a plugin for Microsoft Office that will be freely available under a BSD license. Independent analysis has, however, reported several concerns with these plugins, including lack of support for Office A third plug-in, OpenOpenOffice O3 , [84] is apparently inactive. OpenOpenOffice was developed by Phase-n, a free and open source software plug-in to enable Microsoft Office to read and write OpenDocument files and any other formats supported by OpenOffice.

Instead of installing a complete office application or even a large plug-in, O3 intended to install a tiny plug-in to the Microsoft Office system. This tiny plug-in intended to automatically send the file to some server, which would then do the conversion, returning the converted file. The server could be local to an organization so private information doesn’t go over the Internet or accessed via the Internet for those who do not want to set up a server.

A beta of the server half has been completed, and further expected announcements have not occurred. Phase-n argued that the main advantage of their approach is simplicity. Their website [85] announces that O3 “requires no new concepts to be explored, no significant development, and leverages the huge existing body of work already created by the OpenOffice developers, the CPAN module authors, and the Microsoft.

NET and Office teams. They also argue that this approach significantly simplifies maintenance; when a new version of OpenOffice is released, only the server needs to be upgraded. A fourth plug-in was announced by the OpenDocument Foundation in May [86] but development was stopped in October Peter Amstein and the Microsoft Office team are reluctant to make liberal use of extension mechanisms, even though provided in ODF 1.

They want to avoid all appearance of an embrace-extend attempt. Section 8. This project is an effort by several of Microsoft’s partners to create a plugin for Microsoft Office that will be freely available under a BSD license. The project released version 1. Some open source application programming interfaces , designed for OpenDocument handling, are available in various dynamic programming languages such as Perl and Python.

The Lpod project is an example. One important issue raised in the discussion of OpenDocument is whether the format is accessible to those with disabilities. There are two issues: does the specification support accessibility, and are implementations accessible? Peter Korn an accessibility expert reviewed version 1. Peter Korn gave an in-depth report [99] on OpenDocument accessibility. He noted that there are many kinds of impairments, including visual minor, major, or blind , physical minor, major with vocal control, major without vocal control , auditory, and cognitive.

He then noted that the situation varies, depending on the specific disability. For a vast number of disabilities, there are no known problems, though. It is important to note that since OpenDocument is an Open Standard file format, there is no need for everyone to use the same program to read and write OpenDocument files; someone with a disability is free to use whatever program works best for them. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For the portable building, see Mobile office. This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. Learn how and when to remove these template messages. This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia’s quality standards. No cleanup reason has been specified. Please help improve this article if you can.

September Learn how and when to remove this template message. This article contains content that is written like an advertisement. Please help improve it by removing promotional content and inappropriate external links , and by adding encyclopedic content written from a neutral point of view. Retrieved 1 May Adobe Systems. Archived from the original on 16 February Retrieved 28 February Archived from the original on 27 June Retrieved 1 June MW Software. Retrieved 16 February Graeme Gott. Retrieved 13 March Microsoft Corporation.

Retrieved 1 February Retrieved 18 June Archived from the original on 13 January Retrieved 21 December Archived from the original on 11 November Retrieved 11 November Retrieved 3 March Retrieved 7 June Retrieved 22 May Retrieved 20 April Archived from the original on 17 May Archived from the original on 28 December Retrieved 2 January Archived from the original on 16 June Retrieved 7 September Archived from the original on 21 July Retrieved 30 October Archived from the original on 22 July Archived from the original on 23 March Archived from the original on 4 February Retrieved 9 January Archived from the original on 29 July Retrieved 27 May Retrieved 28 January Retrieved 9 March Sun Microsystems.

Retrieved 27 January Heise Online. Archived from the original on 11 July Retrieved 6 July The Register. PC World. Archived from the original PDF on 11 June Retrieved 24 May This is because the formulas used to perform calculations within a spreadsheet e. Instead of performing the calculations, what is left is when the spreadsheet is loaded in MS Excel is the last value that cell had, when previously saved. The same test spreadsheet, when loaded and saved in all the other applications besides MS Excel e.

Most other ODF spreadsheet applications are able to interoperate just fine. The correct approach would have been for Microsoft to do the same to ensure that MS Office users can share spreadsheets with other ODF-supporting office suites.

 
 

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